高考英语语法专题复习 高考英语语法专题复习 一,冠词 The Article 知识要点: 知识要点: 冠词是一种虚词,放在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义.冠词分不定冠词(The Indefinite Article) 和定冠词(The definite Article)两种.a (an) 是不定冠词,a 用在辅音之前:如 a book, a man; an 用在元音 之前,如:an old man, an hour, an interesting book 等.the 是定冠词. 一,不定冠词的用法 1, 指人或事物的某一种类 (泛指)这是不定冠词 a (an)的基本用法. She is a girl. I am a teacher. Please . 如: pass me an apple. 2,指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物.如:He borrowed a story-book from the library. A Wang is looking for you. 一位姓王的同志正在找你. 3,表示数量,有"一"的意思,但数的概念没有 one 强烈.如: I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes. 4,用于某些固定词组中.如: a bit, a few, a little, a lot of, a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a pile of, a pair of, have a good time, for a while, for a long time 等. 5,用在抽象名词前,表具体的介绍??a + 抽象名词,起具体化的作用.如: This little girl is a joy to her parents. 这女孩对她父母来说是一个乐趣. It is a pleasure to talk with you. 跟您交谈真是一件愉快的事情. It is an honour to me to attend the meeting. 参加这个会,对我来说是一种荣誉. 定冠词的用法: 二,定冠词的用法: 1,特指某(些)人或某(些)事物.这是定冠词 the 的基本用法.如: Beijing is the capital of China. The pen on the desk is mine. 2,指谈话双方都知道的人或事物.如: Where is the teacher? Open the window, please. 3,指上文提过的人或事物(第二次出现) .如: There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms. The baby was thin. 4,用在世界上独一无二的事物前.如: the earth, the moon, the sun. 5,用在序数词和形容词最高级前. (副词最高级前的定冠词可省略)如: He is always the first to come to school. Bob is the tallest in his class. 6,用在某些专有名词前(由普通名词构成的专用名词) .如: the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Science Museum, the Children's Palace, the Party 等. 7,用在一些习惯用语中.如: on the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next year, by the way 等. 8,用在江河湖海,山脉前.如: the Yellow River, the Pacific Ocean, the Alps, the Himalayas 9,用在报刊,杂志前.如: the People's Daily, the Evening Paper, the Times 泰晤士报. 10,表示某一家人要加定冠词.如: The Browns are at home to receive visitors today. 布朗一家今天要接待客人. 11,用在形容词前,表某一类人.如: the poor, the wounded, the living, the dead, the rich, the sick 等. 12,定冠词可以表示一事物内部的某处.如:
2005 年高考英语第二轮复习 第1页
The driver always sits in the front of the bus(car). 零冠词(即不用冠词) 三,零冠词(即不用冠词) : 1,专用名词和不可数名词前.如: China, America, Grade One, Class Two, milk, oil, water, paper, science 等. 2,名词前已有作定语用的 this, that, my, your, some, any 等代词.如: Go down this street. 3,复数名词表示一类人或事物时.如: We are students. I like reading stories. 4,节日,日期,月份,季节前.如: Teachers' Day, Children's Day, National Day, in summer, in July 等. Today is New Year's Day. It is Sunday. March 8 is Women's Day. 5,在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前,尤其作表语,宾补时.如: What's the matter, Granny? We elected him monitor. 6,在某些习惯用语中的名词前.如: at noon, at night, at first, at last, at most, at least, by bus(train, air, sea), in bed, in time, in front of, go to school, go to bed, go to college, on foot, at table, in ink, in pencil 等. 7,在三餐饭和球类运动前.如: She goes to school after breakfast every morning. We are going to play football. We usually have lunch at school. 8,科目前不加.如: We learn Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects. 专项训练】 【专项训练】 : air. 1, We can't live without A.an B.× C.the D.some 2,??Have you seen pen? I left it here this morning. ??Is it black one? I think I saw it somewhere. A.a; the B.the; the C.the; a D.a; a 3,I've been waiting for him for hour and half. A.×; × B.the; a C.a; the D.an; a 4,What fine weather we have today! A.a B.× C.some D.an 5,Have you ever seen as tall as this one? A.a tree B.such tree C.an tree D.tree 6,Children usually go to school at age of six. A.×; the B.a; an C.the; × D.the; the 7, Himalayas is highest mountain in world. A.×; the;× B.The; the; the C.A; a; a D.×;×;× 8,They each have __book. Li Hua's is about writer. Wang Lin's is on science. A.a; a; × B.the; ×; the C.×; the; × D.a; the; a 9, Physics is science of matter and energy. A.The; × B.×; × C.×; the D.A; a sun rises in east and sets in west. 10, A.A; an; a B.The;×;× C.The; the; the D.A; the; a 11,Many people agree that__knowledge of English is a must in international trade today.
2005 年高考英语第二轮复习 第2页
A.a;× B.the; an C.the; the D.×; the 12, __Mr Jones called while you were out (neither of us knows this man). He was in bad temper. A.×;a B.A;× C.The; the D.A; a 13,They were at dinner then. It was delicous one. A.a; the B.×;× C.×;a D.a; a car do you want to buy? 14,what kind of A.× B.the C.a D.an 15,Alice is fond of playing piano while Henry is interested in listening to music. A.×; the B.×;× C.the; × D.the; the 16,Beyond stars, the astronaut saw nothing but space. A.the; × B.×; the C.×;× D.the; the telephone in 18
  76. 17,Alexander Graham Bell invented A.× B.a C.the D.one 18,??Where's Jack? ??I think he's still in bed, but he might just be in bathroom. A.×;× B.the; the C.the; × D.×; the 19,Many people are still in habit of writing silly things in public places. A.the; the B.×;× C.the; × D.×; the 20,??I'd like information about the management of your hotel, please. word with the manager. He might be helpful. ??Well, you could have A.some; a B.an; some C.some; some D.an; a 答案】 【答案】 : 1,B air 是不可数名词. 2, 此题为 97 年高考题. D 根据句意, 第一空是泛指, 第一次出现; 第二空仍是泛指, 且表数量 "-" . 3,D 元音前用 an. 4,B weather 是不可数名词. 5,A 此题为 85 年高考题.泛指. 6,A go to school 是固定短语. 7,B 山脉,形容词最高级及世界上的唯一的名词前加定冠词. 8,A 第一,二空泛指,第三空,science 是不可数名词. 9,C 第一空,科目前不加冠词;第二空特指,有定语. 10,C 11,A 第一空,a + 不可数名词表具体的介绍;第二空,trade 不可数. 12,D 第一空是指有一位琼斯先生在您不在的时候来访. (括号里说明,我们俩都不认识这个人,因 此不是特指. )第二空是固定短语,情绪不好. 13,C 第一空 at dinner 正在吃饭,固定短语. 14,A 泛指 15,C 此题是 89 年高考题:乐器前加定冠词;music 是不可数名词. 16,A 此题是 90 年高考题:stars 前应加定冠词;space 不可数. 17,C 此题是 91 年高考题:发明应是特指. 18,D 此题是 92 年高考题.in bed 是固定短语,不加冠词. 19,C 此题是 93 年高考题.第一空后有定语,固是特指.第二空, public places,公共场所,泛指. 20,A 此题是 95 年高考题.information 是不可数名词;have a word with sb.是固定短语. 二,名词 Nouns 知识要点: 知识要点: 名词的种类: 一,名词的种类: 1,专有名词:
  1)China, Japan, Beijing, London, Tom, Jack(不加冠词)
  2)the Great Wall, the Yellow River, the People's Republic of China, the United States 等. (由普通名词构
2005 年高考英语第二轮复习 第3页
成的专有名词,要加定冠词. ) 2,普通名词:
  1)不可数名词
物质名词: water , rice , oil , paper … 抽象名词: health , trouble , work , pleasure , honor …
注意: 注意: 不可数名词前一般不加冠词,尤不加不定冠词:若加 a(an)则使之具体化了. 如:have a wonderful time. 不可数名词作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式. 不可数名词一般无复数形式.部分物质名词在表不同类别时,可用复数形 式. 如:fishes, newspapers, waters, snows…… | | | | 各种各样的鱼 各种报纸 河湖,海水 积雪 有些抽象名词也常用复数,变为可数的具体的事物.如:times 时代,works 著作,difficulties 困难 在表数量时,常用"of"词组来表示.如: a glass of milk, a cup of tea, two pieces of paper….
  2)可数名词: 可数名词除用复数形式表一类之外,一般都要加冠词:A birdcaufly. The frog is a kind of hibernating animal. Vegetables sold at this shop are usually fresh. 有复数形式: a)规则变化??加"s"或"es" (与初中同,略) b)不规则变化??child (children), foot (feet), tooth (teeth), man (men), woman (women), mouse (mice), goose (geese), Englishman (Englishmen), phenomenon(phenomena)… 注意:c)单,复数同形:sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese, fish(同一种鱼)…….如, 注意 a sheep, two sheep d)只用复数形式: thanks, trousers, goods, clothes, socks, shoes,… e)形复实单:physics, politics, maths, news, plastics(塑料) ,means. f)形单实复:people (人民,人们) ,the police, cattle 等 g)集合名词如:family, public, group, class 等.当作为整体时,为单数;当作 为整体中的各个成员时,为复数.如: My family is a big one. My family are music lovers. h)复合名词变复数时,a)只把复合名词中的主体各词变为复数形式.如: sister(s)-in-law 嫂子,弟妹;step-son (s)继子;editor (s) -in-chief 总编辑. b)如没有主体名词则在最后一个词的后面加"s" .如:grown-up(s)成年人,go-between(s) 中间人 c)woman, man 作定语时,要与被修饰的名词的数一致.如:a man servant?men servants, a woman doctor?women doctors 名词的所有格: 二,名词的所有格: 1,表有生命的东西(人或动物)的名词所有格,一般在名词后加"'s" .如:Mike's bag, Children's Day, my brother's room, women's rights… 注意: .如:Teachers' Day, the workers' 注意:
  1)名词复数的词尾是-s 或-es,它的所有格只在词后加"s" rest-home(工人疗养院) ,the students' reading-room
  2)复合名词的所有格,在后面的词后加"'s" .如:her son-in-law's photo(她女婿的照片) ; anybody else's book(其他任何人的书)
  3)如果一样东西为两人或两人以上共有,则在最后的一个名词后面加"'s" ; 如果不是共有,则每个词后都要加"'s" .如:Jane and Helen's room. 珍妮和海伦的房间(共有). Bill's and
2005 年高考英语第二轮复习 第4页
Tom's radios. 比尔的收音机和汤姆的 收音机(不共有)
  4)表地点(店铺,某人的家等)的名词所有格后面,一般省去它所修饰的名词.如: the tailor's (裁缝铺) the doctor's (诊所) Mr Brown's (布朗先生的家)
  5)有些表时间,距离,国家,城镇的无生命的名词,也可加"'s"表所有格. 如:half an hour's walk (半小时的路程) China's agriculture (中国的农业) 2,表示无生命的东西的名词一般与 of 构成词组,表示所有格.如:the cover of the book 3,表示有生命的东西的名词也可以用 of,特别是名词较长,有较多的定语时.如: the story of Dr Norman Bethune Do you know the name of the boy standing at the gate? 4, "of 词组+所有格"的用法: 在表示所属物的名词前有冠词, 数词, 不定代词或指示代词 (如: two, some, a few, this, that, these, those a, 等)时,常用"of 词组+所有格"的形式来表示所有关系.如: a friend of my father's 我父亲的一位朋友. some inventions of Edison's 爱迪生的一些发明 those exercise-books of the students' 学生们的那些练习本. 专项训练】 【专项训练】 : 1,There are only twelve in the hospital. A.woman doctors B.women doctors C.women doctor D.woman doctor , both of whom are teachers in a school. 2,Mr Smith has two A.brothers-in-law B.brother-in-laws C.brothers-in-laws D.brothers-in law 3,??How many does a cow have? ??Four. A.stomaches B.stomach C.stomachs D.stomachies visited our school last Wednesday. 4,Some A.German B.Germen C.Germans D.Germens 5,The of the building are covered with lots of . A.roofs; leaves B.rooves; leafs C.roof; leaf D.roofs; leafs 6,When the farmer returned home he found three missing. A.sheeps B.sheepes C.sheep D.sheepies 7,That was a fifty engine. A.horse power B.horses power C.horse powers D.horses powers 8,My father often gives me . A.many advice B.much advice C.a lot of advices D.a few advice 9,Mary broke a while she was washing up. A.tea cup B.a cup of tea C.tea's cup D.cup tea 10,Can you give us some about the writer? A.informations B.information C.piece of informations D.pieces information 11,I had a cup of and two pieces of this morning. A.teas; bread B.teas; breads C.tea; breads D.tea; bread 12,As is known to us all, travels much faster than . A.lights; sounds B.light; sound C.sound; light D.sounds; lights and . 13,She told him of all her
2005 年高考英语第二轮复习 第5页
A.hope; fear B.hopes; fear C.hopes; fears D.hope; fears 14,The rising did a lot of to the crops. A.water; harm B.water; harms C.waters; harm D.waters; harms 15,??How far away is it from here to your school? . ??It's about A.half an hour's drive B.half hours drives C.half an hour drives D.h
 

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