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2011 届高考英语知识点总结(
  1) 届高考英语知识点总结( )
a great/good many: a large number of 许多。修饰可数名词复数。 I'm quite busy. I have a great many things to do. 我很忙,我有很多事要做。若复数名词前有限定 词或其修饰的为代词时,应加 of . ①A great many of the books have been sold out. 已经卖了很多书了。 ②A great many of them are out of work.他们很多人失业了。
able(可以的,有能力的,可能的) ①He is an able man.那人本事不小。
enable(v)使……能 ②We must learn more to enable us to face all the difficulties.我们要多学知识以便能面对各种困 难。
disable:有残疾的,不能干的;the disabled 表示一类人(残疾人) able 作词辍时 ①可以……的,值得……的(有被动含义)
eatable 可食用的,measurable 可以测量、估计的;readable 可读的 ②其他含义:conformable 舒适的、安逸的;suitable 合适的,恰当的
above,over,on
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三个词都可以表示"在……上",但用法不同。On 表示与某物体表面接触;over 表示在某物体 垂直的上方,含"布满、覆盖、跨越"之意,与 under 相对;above 表示位置高于,但不一定垂 直,与 below 相对。注意:与数字、数量、长度词连用时,多用 over,同 more than。如: over10,000people 一万多人;表示年龄、刻度多用 above,如 a man above fifty 五十开外的人; above zero 零度以上。 习惯用语:well above average 远在一般以上;above sea-level 海拔以上;the one above 上面的 一个;above all 首先,尤其重要的是;over there 那边; all over 遍及;over again 再一遍; over and over 再三地
[应用]介词填空 ①There lay an umbrellathe table and some raincoats it. ②The mother held an umbrellathe boy's head so that the sun wouldn't burn him. ③ There seemed to be a war and many planes were flyingthe city. ④The moon wasthe trees in the east. Key:①on,under ②over ③over ④above above all 首先,特别是,最重要的是 after all 到底,毕竟 at all (用来加强语气)与 not 连用,表示"一点也不,完全不"。 in all 总共 all but 几乎,差点没(=almost,nearly) ①We have all but finished the work. ②The day turned out fine after all.
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③Children need many things ,but above all they need love. ④He wasn't at all tired. ⑤Do you feel ill at all(真的,确实)? ⑥There were twenty in all at the party.
accident/event/ incident event 一般指重大事件。accident 多指意外或偶然发生的事故,特别是不幸的、有损害性的事 故。incident 相对于 accident 来说,显得不很重要,指"小事件",它还可以用来表示"事变",如 叛乱、爆炸等。如:
The broadcaster is broadcasting the news on current events.广播员正在播报时事新闻。
He was badly injured in the traffic accident.在那起交通事故中,他严重受伤。
There was an incident on the bus: a man fought with the conductor.那辆公共汽车上发生了一件事, 有个人和售票员打了起来。
Have you heard of Xi'an Incident?你听说过"西安事变"吗?
admit vt.①接纳,许可……进入(allow sb./sth.to enter)
He was admitted to the school this year.Only two hundred boys and girls are admitted to our school every year. ②承认,后可接名词,doing、从句或复合结构。
I admit my fault.She admitted having read the letter.He admitted that his comprehension was weak.You must admit the task to be difficult.
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advice 建议;劝告。是不可数名词,"一条建议"应用 a piece of advice。常用结构。give sb.advice(on)/give advice 给某人提(关于……的)建议;忠告某人。ask(sb.)for advice 征求(某 人的)意见。
①Marx gave us some good advice on how to learn a foreign language.关于如何学好外语,马克思 给我们提了些好建议。
②If you take /follow my advice,you'll pass the exam.如果你听从我的建议,你会考试及格的。 ③Let's ask our teacher for some advice.咱们征求一下老师的意见吧。
admire(= respect / praise)vt.羡慕,钦佩,夸奖
admire sb.(for sth.)佩服某人某事 Visitors to Beijing greatly admire our Palace Museum. 去北京的游人极其羡慕我们的故宫。
I admire him for his wisdom.我佩服他的智慧。 对比:envy(= jealous)vt.嫉妨,羡慕
envy sb.(sth.)嫉妒/羡慕某人某事
We all envy you your good future. 我们都很羡慕你的好运。
advise sb. to do sth.建议某人做某事(suggest 不这样用)。 ①I advise you to take the chance.我建议你抓住机会。 ②-What do you advise me to do?你建议我怎么办?
-I advise you not to lose heart; just keep on.我劝你不要灰心,继续干。
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advise 还可同 suggest 一样,后接名词、代词、动名词(短语)和 that 从句(用虚拟语气)作 宾语。
①-What would you advise?你有什么建议吗? -I advise you an early start 我建议你早点出发。 ②I advise holding a metting to discuss the problem.我建议召开一次会议来讨论这个问题。 ③I advise you (should) go to once.我建议你马上去。 advise ,persuade persuade sb. to do sth.意为"说服某人做某事",强调劝说成功,说服;advise sb. to do sth. 意为" 劝说某人做某事",不涉及劝说是否有效,相当于 try to persuade sb. to do sth.。如:
The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.医生说服我爸爸戒了烟。
The doctor advised my father to give up smoking, but failed. 医生劝我爸爸戒烟,但没成功。
advise; suggest advise 与 suggest 都可作"建议"讲,二者用法有同有异。
(
  1)相同点 表示建议做某事,advise 与 suggest 都可采用下列三种句型: ① + 名词 ② + 动名词 ③ + that 从句(从句中常用 should 加动词原形,should 可以省略。)
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eg. He advised/ suggested an early start.
He advised/ suggested (our) starting early.
He advised/ suggested that we (should) start early. (注:只要是用从句表示建议该做的事,从句中就可用"should+动词原形",should 可以省略。) 上面的第三句可转化为:
It was suggested that we (should) start early.
What he suggested was that we(should) start early.
His suggestion was that we (should) start early.
(
  2)不同点 ①advise 后可以跟人称代词作宾语,而 suggest 后不可以跟人称代词作宾语。故可以说:
advise sb. to do sth.; advise sb. against (doing) sth.; advise sb. on/ about sth.; suggest(to sb.)that... 前三种结构中不可将 advise 改为 suggest,如: 他建议我们去参观博物馆。
[正]He advised us to go to visit the museum.
[误]He suggested us to go to visit the museum.
[误]He suggested us that we go to visit the museum. ②suggest 还有"暗示、表明、说、指出(一个事实)"的意思。此时从句中用陈述语气,不用 虚拟语气。如:
The smile on his face suggested that he was pleased.
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Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the patient was seriously ill.(句中 suggest 陈述 了一个事实,故用陈述语气。)比较:
Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the Patient be operated on at once.(句中 suggest 表示建议该做某事, 从句中用 should 加动词原形, should 在从 句中省略。)
affect(=have an effect on sth.)vt.影响(effect n.影响)
This may affect your health. 这或许会影响你的健康。
My throat is always affected by bad weather. 我的嗓子总是受恶劣天气的影响。
afraid

  1)"be afraid of+名词",意为"害怕"。

  2)"be afraid of doing sth"意为"担心,害怕……"。

  3)"be afraid for…"意为"为……担心。"

  4)"be afraid that…"意为"担心,恐怕"。

  5)"be afraid to do "意为"害怕,担心而不敢做某事"。

  6)I'm afraid so/not.恐怕是这样/恐怕不会这样
[应用]完成句子 ①女孩子一般都怕蛇。
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Girls are usually snakes. ②他怕把杯子打碎,因而很小心。
He was careful because he was afraid the glass. ③你不为自己的安全担心吗?
Are you afraidyour safety? ④恐怕她会迷路。
I am she will lose her way. ⑤汤姆把钱丢了,也不敢告诉他母亲。
Tom lost the money and was afraid his mother. Key:①afraid,of ②of,breaking ③for ④afraid,that ⑤to tell again and again = time and time again = over and over = over and over again 再三地
The old man thinks of his happy past again and again. 这位老人再三地想起他幸福的过去。
age
(
  1)n.年龄,时代,时期
The old man died at the age of 80/when he was 80 years of age/when he was 80 years old. 那位老人 80 岁时去世了。
He is young for his age. 就他的年龄而论,他是年轻的。
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What is the age of the church? 这座教堂多少年了?
He was the greatest poet of the age. 他是那个时代最伟大的诗人。
(
  2)vi./vt. 变老
He is aging fast. Worry ages a man. 他老得很快。忧虑令人老!
I found him greatly aged. 我发现他老多了。
拓展:(
  1)adj. aged……岁的,年老的 a boy aged ten 一个 10 岁的男孩 an aged man 老人
(
  2)人生的七期
baby→infant→child→youth→manhood→middle age→old age 婴儿/0→幼儿 7→儿童 12→青年 28→壮年 40→中年 65→老年 agree 同意。常用桔构: (
  1)agree on 对……取得一致意见或达成协议,一般表示原双方共同商讨以后达成协议的名词)。 主语必须是两者以上。也常用被动语态,表示"(某事)是大家都同意的"。 如:
①They agreed on the date for the next meeting.对下次会议的日期他们达成了一致意见。
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②At last,the plan was agreed on. 最后,这项计划通过了。 ③I don't agree with you to this arrangement, but perhaps, after a discussion we will agree on this project.我不赞同你在这件事的安排,但或许在协商之后我们可以就这个工程达成共识。 (
  2)agree to 同意;赞成。to 为介词,后接表示"建议;办法;计划"等名词。 ①Do you agree to my plan?你同意我的计划吗? ②The headmaster has agreed to our suggestion for the holiday.校长同意了我们度假的建议。 (
  3)agree with 同意;赞成。后接 sb. 或 what 从句。
I agree with you ,but I don't agree with what he said.我同意你的意见,但我不同意他所说的。另 外,agree with 还有"与……相适应/相一致"的意思。
The climate here doesn't agree with me .我不适应这里的气候。
(
  4)agree to do sth.同意、答应做某事。
Do you agree to go with us if we agree to lend you some money?如果我们答应借钱给你,你同意 和我们一起去吗?
ahead 短语归纳 go ahead 朝前走, (同意对方继续干或同意对方的请求) go ahead (on)with… 继续; 请便 ; ahead of 在……前面,早于,优先;ahead of time 提前
[应用]完成句子 ①他朝前走去看看发生了什么事情。
He to see what had happened. ②我可以坐这个座位吗?请坐吧。
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May I take this seat? . ③汤姆的数学比玛丽好。
Tom is Mary in maths. ④她比我早到 2 个小时。
She arrived two hours me. ⑤他们已提前三周完成了设计。
They have completed the design time. Key:①went,ahead ②Go,ahead ③/ ④ahead,of
⑤three,weeks,ahead,of
alive,living,live,lively,lovely 区别
  1)lovely 意"可爱的","美好的"如: a lovely day 美好的一天 a lovely girl 可爱的女孩
  2)alive 意为"活着的、有活力的",是表语形容词,可修饰人、物; 在句中做表语宾补和或后置定词,不能用作前置定语。如
He was alive when he was taken to the hospital.他被送往医院时还活着。
Although he is old, he is still very much alive. 虽然年老了,但他仍十分活跃。
The fish is still alive/living.那条鱼还活着。
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Keep him alive, please.请让他活下去吧。
He is the only man alive in the accident.他是
 

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