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2011 届高考英语知识点总结(
  4) 届高考英语知识点总结( )
② I do like you.我真的喜欢你。 ③She does work very hard.她学习确实很努力。 ④-Why didn't you tell him?你为什么不告诉他?
-I did tell him.我告诉他了。 do sb. a favour 或 do a favour for sb.给某人帮个忙,如果有 to do sth.则常用。
do sb.the favour to do sth.如: ①I wonder if you can do me a favour?我不知道你能不能帮我个忙?(没有说干何事) ②Please do me the favour to open the door, I want to go out. 麻烦你给我开一下门,我要出去。
do up 收拾(东西) 。整理、梳装打扮、系(扣)好…… ①He was so hurried that he did up his buttons wrongly. 他太着急了以致于扣错了纽扣。
②She spent a long time doing up her hair.她花了很长时间把头盘起来。
Do you think so? ① "so" 用 于 避 免 重 复 前 面 所 说 过 的 内 容 , 等 于 代 替 肯 定 的 名 词 性 从 句 , 可 与 believe,do,expect,fear,guess,hope,say,speak,suppose,
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think 等及 It appear…,It seems 和 I'm afraid 连用。
"Will they go to see him?"
"I believe so.(DI believe[that]they will go to see him.)" ② 表 示 否 定 时 , 用 not 代 替 so, 但 在 believe,suppose,think 等 动 词 之 后 , 如 I don't think(believe,suppose)so 等,通常仍可与 so 连用。 ③不能和表示确信、疑问的词语连用。
I doubt about it.(√)
I doubt so.(×) do walking 步行。"do + 动名词"结构表示"干某事,有较灵活的译法。
do reading(读书)/washing(洗衣服)/cooking(做饭)/shopping(买东西)/cleaning(打扫除)等。
Do what I told you to .
Don't be late again. Make sure the door is shut. 让对方做或不做某事时 dozens of 几十;许多。 ①She bought dozens of dresses.她买了许多衣服。 ②I've borrowed dozens of books for my daughter.我为女儿借了许多书。
doubt v.& n.怀疑,不相信
n.
of…对……(抱)怀疑或悲观(态度)
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doubt
从句在否定句及疑问句中多跟 that 引起的从句,在肯定句中多跟
whether(if)引起的从句。 ①I doubt the truth of this report. ②They have never doubted of success. ③I don't doubt that you are honest. ④Can you doubt that he will win? ⑤I doubt if that was what he wanted. 该词作名词时有以下短语
beyond(all)doubt 毫无疑问; doubt 怀疑, in 犹豫, 不肯定; doubt 肯定地, no 想必; without doubt 毫无疑问,一定地
①The truth of the story is beyond doubt. ②I was in doubt about what to do. ③No doubt I learned a lot from that lecture. ④Without doubt these theories were all wrong.
dream vi.做梦,迫切希望 As he slept, he dreamed a dream. 他睡觉时做了一个梦。
W
e dream of peace.我们梦想和平。
拓展:dream a pleasant/sweet/horrible dream 做好梦/甜梦/噩梦
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live a happy/quiet/hard/normal life 过幸福/平静/艰苦/正常的生活 die a glorious death 死得光荣
Do you dream at night?你晚上做梦吗?
dream of……多用于否定句中,"做梦也没想到,从未想到过"
I never dream of getting so much money. 我从未幻想过得到这么多钱。
Dream+从句
We never dreamed that the film was so long. 我们怎么也没想到这部电影这么长。
dream of 迫切希望、渴望。
People all over the world are dreaming of peace. 全世界人民都渴望和平。
dreamy(adj.)模糊的,梦幻般的
I don't believe your dreamy words.我不信你的梦语。 动词 + about read about 读到有关的内容;know about 了解;learn about 得知有关……;hear about 听说过; forget about 忘记有关……;talk about 谈论;argue about 争论;chat about 闲谈;tell about 讲 述有关……; think about 考虑; write about 写有关的……; joke about 拿……开玩笑; worry about 为……担心。
[应用]汉译英
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①我已在报纸上读到了有关这次事故的情况。
②这件事我几乎忘了。
Key:①I've read about the accident in the newspaper. ②I almost forget about this matter. 动词+at
动词+at, 其中的 at 多表示"目标,方向"。如: shout at 朝……喊;laugh at 嘲笑;throw at 朝……扔;shoot at 朝……射击;point at 指着;aim at 瞄准;call at 拜访;stare at 盯着;glance at 一瞥;take a look at 看一眼;pull at 拉,扯;arrive at 到达;come at 朝……起来;tear at 撕,扯
[应用]完成句子 ①别对那孩子大声嚷嚷,你吓坏她了。
Don't the girl. You frightened her. ②他被朋友们嘲笑了。
He by his friends. ②was, laughed, at
Key:①shout, at 动词不定式的省略
为了避免重复,我们常常把作宾语、宾补和谓语动词的一部分的不定式省略,只保留动词不 定式的符号 to。现将常见省略不定式的几种情况通过实例加以简析,供大家参考:
(
  1)-How about coming to my house?
-I'd love to if it doesn't give you so much trouble.
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在 hope, like, love, promise, want, wish 等词后作宾语的不定式常省略。再如:
You may go if you want to.
She can get a job if she hopes to.
-How about going hunting with me tomorrow?
-I'd like to, but I have no time. (
  2)Don't close the window until I ask you to. 在 allow, ask, tell 等词后作宾语补足语的不定式常省略。再如:
Don't touch the light unless your mother allows you to.
Don't plant potatoes until the peasant tells you to. (
  3)He didn't want to hand in his composition, but he had to. 在 be able to, be going to, have to, need to, enough to, used to 等后的不定式需省略。再如:
I don't sing much, now, but I used to a lot.
If you don't want to say anything at the meeting, you don't need to.
She didn't go out last night, because she was afraid to. 在 afraid, glad, happy, pleased, sorry 等词后作状语的不定式常省略。再如:-Will you go with me to see the film tonight?
-I'll be glad to. 动词 + off 短语 fly off 飞走;go off 离开;take off 脱下,起飞;run off 跑开;fall off 掉下;turn off 关上;
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get off 下来;drive off 驶离;hurry off 匆忙离开;keep off 离开,勿靠近;pay off 还清(债) put off 推迟;send off 驱逐;set off 出发,动身;throw off 扔掉,匆忙脱衣;ring off 挂断电 话;
[应用]完成句子 ①此处很危险,让孩子们离开。
It's dangerous here. the children. ②火车刚到,一大群人正在下车。
The train has just come in, with crowds of people it. Key:①keep ,off ②getting, off 动词 + up go up(物价等)上涨,上升;build(up)one's health 使身体强壮;turn up 出席,到场,开大音量; divide up 分配;分给;set up 建立;come up 走近,发芽;pick up 拾起,用车接,收听(节 目);send up 发射;get up 起床;grow up 长大;look up 仰望,查阅;eat up 吃光;drink up 喝光;use up 用光;stay/sit up 熬夜;give up 放弃;take up 占空间,从事,开始干;keep up 保持,继续;put up 举起,建起;hang up 挂起来;hold up 举起;join up 连接起来;rise up 奋 起反抗;move up 向前移动;lift up 扶起;do up 包,捆;hurry up 赶快;call up 打电话;break up 拆散,破裂;make up 组成,化妆,编造;bring up 抚养大;dress up 打扮;add up 加起来;warm up 变暖,热身。
[应用]完成句子 ①物价在天天上涨。
Prices are day after day. ②衣服常常挂在火炉附近。
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The clothes are often near a fire. ③妈妈的把孩子扶起来,领走了。
The mother the baby and took him away. ④他到乡下呆了一段时间,身体好了起来。
He went and stayed in the countryside for a period of time and . Key: ①going, up②hung, up③lifted, up④built, up, his, health drop 用法归纳 drop 可用作名词"滴";用作不及物动词"掉下,滴下";用作及物动词"使掉(滴)下"。如: a drop of blood 一滴血; drop by rop/in drops 一滴一滴地; drop from the tree 从树上掉下来; drop to the ground 落在地上;drop the letter into the mailbox 把信投进信箱;drop a handkerchief/stone 掉下手帕/石头
习语:drop in 顺便拜访;drop in on sb.顺便走访某人;drop in at his school 顺便拜访他的学校。
[应用]完成句子 ①我看见一个苹果从树上掉下来。
I saw an apple the tree. ②他们这样做是搬起石头咂自己的脚。
In doing so they are lifting a rock to on their
feet. ③你路过的话,千万要来。
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Do if you happen to be passing.
Key: ①drop,from ②drop, it ③drop, in
due to , be due to be due(to)有"应付给,应到的,预期的"之意,多用作表语,to 不定式符号;而 due to 表示"由 于,起因于"时,to 是介词,相当于 because of。如: The train is due to arrive at
  12.火车应于 12 点到。
When is the ship due?船预定何时到? The accident was due to careless driving 车祸是粗心驾车引起的。
[应用]完成句子 ①那项计划由于资金不足而失败。
The program failed lack of money. ②希尔先生预定明天演讲两次。
Mr Hill lecture twice tomorrow. ②is ,due, to
Key:①due,to
earn v.赚;得到 ①earn n. ②earn sb. sth ③earn one's living
He earns $10,000 a year.他一年赚 10,000 英镑。
His honesty earned him great respect.他因诚实而博得人们的尊敬。
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She earned her living by singing in a nightclub.她靠在夜总会唱歌谋生。
earn, gain, win ,get 四个词均有"得到"之意,但 earn 指经过艰苦努力所得到的报偿,意为"赚得";gain 指作出很大 努力而"获得",所得东西常有一定价值;get 是普通词,指不一定需要努力就能"得到";win 意 为"赢得",含有取胜一方具有优越条件而能克服障碍之意。这四个词有时可通用。
[应用]英译汉 ①earn much money/a prize/one's living ②gain a victory/experience/the first prize/ten dollars/a living/success/the battle/a doctor's degree ③get one's help/full marks Key: ①挣得很多钱/获奖/谋生 ②获胜/取得经验/获得一等奖/赚 10 美元/谋生/获得成功/赢得战斗/获博士学位 ③得到某人的帮助/得满分
earn one's living,make one's living 谋生,挣钱过活。
The professor earns his living by teaching at a language school. eat up 吃光;吃掉。
He was so hungry that he ate up all the cakes and none was left.他太饿了,把所有的蛋糕都吃完 了,一点也没剩。
类似的短语还有:drink up 喝光;喝净。/burn up 烧完;烧掉。/use up 用完;用尽。/clean up 打扫干净。
effect
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have effect on 对……有影响,相当于 affect:
It has had such a bad effect on him. effort 短语归纳 make the greatest effort 做最大努力;make great efforts 尽最大努力;make a special effort 作出 特殊努力;make an effort to do sth.努力做某事;make every effort to help you 尽力帮助你;make one last effort 作最后的努力;make no effort 不努力;spare no efforts to do sth.不遗余力去做某 事;with(an)effort 艰难地;without effort 轻而易举地;in an effort 努力。
[应用]完成句子 ①他身体很强壮,可以轻易地提起那个重箱子。
He is strong enough to lift the heavy box . ②我们会不遗余力地阻止他们采取这一步骤。
We will to prevent them from takingthis
step. ③他艰难地游泳,为的是救出那个孩子。
He swam with difficulty save
the boy. ④我不会努力去帮助这样的人。
I'll to help such a person. ②spare, to ,efforts
Key:①without,effout ③in, an, effort, to
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④make, no, efforts
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make efforts to do sth.努力(尽力)干……
make an effort (at)尽力,努力…… spare no effort 不遗余力
I made every effort to get it (at getting it) end up 结果,结束
He started as an employee and ended up as head of the
 

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