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英语中的时态用法比较研究
在英语中, 时态是英语语法中的难点之一,它种类多,容易混淆,下面笔者通过几种时态比较, 帮 助英语学习者理解和掌握时态的用法。
现在一般时与现在完成时 现在一般时与现在进行时 现在完成时与过去一般时 过去完成时与过去一般时 过去进行时与过去一般时 将来一般时与现在进行时 现在一般时与过去一般式 现在完成时与现在完成进行时 现在一般时与过去完成时

  1. 现在一般时与现在完成时
  1) I come from Shanghai(上海人) I have come from Shanghai(从上海来)
  2) You read very well. (强调能力) You've read very well. (强调一次刚完成的动作)
  3) I forget.(一时想不起来了) I have forgotten.(仍没想起来,可能已回忆起来了)
  4) The book is written in simple English. (表状态) The book has been written in simple English.(表动态,已用英语写成)
  5) Every time I see him, he's been reading. (两个动作不可能同时进行)Every time I have seen him, he's been reading. (强调两个动作同时进行)

  6) He is gone. (强调状态)He has gone (强调动作和时间)
  7) He won't come till the play begins. (演出开始时) He won't come till the play has begun.(戏已开始)
  8) After I leave school, I'll go to college. (两个动作紧密相接)
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After I have left school, I'll go to college.(强调毕业后,两个动作可能有间隔)
  9) It is a long time since I saw you last. It's been a long time since I saw you last.(这 两句话一样,后一句是美国英语)
  10) Where are you? (在哪)Where have you been?(去了哪)

  2. 现在一般时与现在进行时
  1) He works hard.(强调始终如一)He is working hard.(强调现在)
  2) What do you do? (干什么工作的)What are you doing?(在干什么)
  3) Here comes the bus! (表高兴和欣慰) The bus is coming.(汽车到来的情景)
  4) I forget him name. I'm forgetting his name.(差点把他的名字忘了)
  5) You don't eat much. (强调胃口不大) You're not eating much.(你怎么不吃呀)
  6) The match starts at 7 o'clock. (比较固定,不宜改变) The match is starting at 7 o'clock.(可以改变)
  7) Tom always comes late. Tom is always coming late.(表示不满,责备)
  8)Tom goes to college now. Tom is going to college now.(这两句区别不大,后者更生动)
  9) I tell you.(我可以告诉你) I'm telling you.(我告诉你吧,有感情色彩)
  10) He always sleeps in the afternoon.
He is always sleeping in the afternoon.(后者意味着整个下午都睡掉了)
  11) I expect you to phone me. ( 几乎等于命令) I'm expecting you to phone me.(婉转)
  12) What do you say? What are you saying?(你说些什么呀,表说话人惊讶,不满)
  12) I find that the book is too difficult for me.(强调结果) I'm finding that the book is too difficult for me. (强调过程,逐渐感到)
  13) Apples cost more these days.(强调事实) Apples are costing more these days.(越来越贵)
  14) He always thinks of others. He's always thinking of others.(表示赞扬)
  15) Whenever I see him, he argues with somebody.(强调两个动作有先后) Whenever I
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see him, he is arguing with somebody.(强调两个动作同时进行)
  16) I hope you'll give us some advice. I'm hoping you'll give us some advice.(表示语气婉转)
  17) I must go. (我应该去)I must be going.(我该走了)
  18) We can discuss this while we eat.(说话是没用餐) We can discuss this while we are eating.(进餐已开始)

  2. 现在完成时与过去一般时
  1) I've seen him this morning.(还在上午的时间里) I saw him this morning.(时间已不在上午了)
  2) Who's opened the window? (窗户还在开着) Who opened the window? (与现在无关,窗户可能已关上)
  3) Have you ever heard him sing? (他可能不是爱唱歌) Did you ever hear him sing?(你曾听过他唱歌吗,他可能是歌唱家)

  4) Have you ever heard of such a thing? (你听过这种事吗) Did you ever hear of such a thing?(这种事, 你听说过吗? 是一个修辞性问题,表示惊异。)
  5) What have I done to make you so angry? (对方仍生气) What did I do to make you so angry? (暗示某一过去的时间,可能对方已不生气了。)
  6) How has he done it? (他这活干的怎么样?强调结果) How did he do it?(他是怎么干这活的?强调干活的方式)
  7) He has lived in New York for eight years. (他仍在纽约) He lived in New York for eight years.(他可能不在人世了)
  8) He has been called a thinker. He was called a thinker.(他曾被誉为思想家)
  9) You've heard what I said. (你听见我的话了) You heard what I said.(你是听见我的话的,口气严厉,具有感情色彩。)
  10) I've lost my pen. (笔还没找到)I lost my pen.(笔可能找到了)
  11) He has already been there. (曾去过哪)
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He was already there.(当时在哪)
  12) Since I have been ill, my friend has visited me every day.(生病还在延续)Since I was ill, my friend has visited me every day. (病已好了)
  13) Have you slept well? (暗示疲倦了,休息后是否好些了) Did you sleep well?(暗示睡的是否舒服,满意)

  4. 过去完成时与过去一般时
  1) I came here after I finished middle school.(两个动作每间隔) I came here after I had finished middle school.(两个动作有间隔,强调先后概念)
  2) I waited till I saw him. I waited till I had seen him. (这两个句子差不多,过去完成时更普遍)

  3) We hoped he would come.(我们希望他来) We had hoped he would come.(我们本希望他来的)
  4) I don't think he sang as well as he once did.(指具体一次) I don't think he sang as well as he had once done.(泛指以前,现在可能不唱了)
  5) Before I came here, I was a soldier.(我来此以前在当兵) Before I came here, I had been a soldier.(我来此以前,曾当过兵)
  6) Jim said he didn't know he was so strong.(表示 Jim 在说话时仍很结实) Jim said he didn't know he had been so strong.(表示在 Jim 说话之前曾结实过)
  7) They were friends from many years.(表示现在还是朋友) They had been friends for many years.(意味这友谊结束了)
  8) He did the work at
  6.(强调时间) He had done the work at
  6. (6 点工作已做完)
  9) I learned French during my holiday.(强调学了) I had learned French during my holiday. (强调学会了)
  10) When she sang she sat down.(表示唱着坐下) When she had sung she sat down.(表示唱完坐下)
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  11) I went to bed when I did my homework.(不明确) I went to bed when I had done my homework.(作业做完)
  12) I have lived here since I was a child.(从我长大成人) I have lived here since I had a child.(从我孩提时)

  5. 过去进行时与过去一般时
  1) I read a book yesterday. (书已看完) I was reading a book yesterday.(书尚未看完)
  2) The guests arrived.(客人已到)
The guests were arriving.(客人陆续到达)
  3) He woke from a dream. (表示全醒) He was waking from a dream.(表示初醒)
  4) The old man died.(已死) The old man was dying.(要死)
  5) John told me about it.(告诉我了,我都知道了) John was telling me about it.(跟我谈起过,我想了解更多的事情)
  6) They persuaded me to go along with them.(已经说服) They were persuading me to go along with them.(还在劝说)
  7) The wind blew hard all night.(强调事实) The wind was blowing hard all night.(强调风刮个不停)
  8) I expected you. I was expecting you.(客气,表示可能等了很旧了)
  9) He knocked at the door.(强调一次性) He was knocking at the door.(强调多次性)

  6. 将来一般时与现在进行时
  1) Will he come? Is he coming?(时间发生的比较近)
  2) How long will you stay hear? (表示意愿) How long will you stay here?(表示打算)
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  3) She'll have a baby. (表示肯定) She's going to have a baby.(表示推测,计划)
  4) I'll see him this evening.(表示意愿) I'm seeing him this evening.(表示打算,已有安排)

  7. 现在一般时与过去一般式
  1) Do you wish to see me? Did you wish to see me?(表示婉转客气)
  2) That's all I have to say.(我的话就这些) That's all I had to say.(我要说的就这些)
  3) How do you like the film? (看电影过程中) How did you like the film?(看完电影后)
  4) It is nice to see you.(见面时说) It was so nice to see you.(离别时说)
  5) I never like him. (没时间性) I never liked him.(从来没喜欢过)
  6) I think I know that voice.(没见客人时) I thought I know that voice.(见到客人时,证明自己正确或错误)
  7) Who is that? (哪人还在) Who was that?(人已不在场了)
  8) This cake is made at home. (家里常做这种蛋糕) This cake was made at home.(这种蛋糕是自家做的)

  8.现在完成时与现在完成进行时
  1) Someone has phoned you.(打了电话) Someone has been phoning you.(一直在打电话)
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  2) I've read the novel.(已读完) I've been reading the novel.(还没读完)
  3) He has lived here for six weeks. e has been living here for six weeks. (区别不大,后者更口语化)
  4) Have you met her lately? Have you been meeting her lately?(强调动作的重复,经常见面)
  5) Who's eaten my apples? ( 苹果没有了) Who's been eating my apples?(有感情色彩,表示愤怒不满)

  9.现在一般时与过去完成时
  1) I hope that he'll come. I had hoped he would come.(与事实相反) (经常这样用的词有:expect, think, intend, mean, suppose)
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