第 10 章 形容词和副词
一. 概念 形容词是用来修饰,描述名词或代词的词,主要用作定语,表语和补足语等. 副词是用来修饰动词,形容词,其化副词,介词短语或全句的词. 二.相关知识点精讲
  1.形容词及其用法
  1.形容词及其用法
  1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、 表语和补语。例如:hot。
  2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多 数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。 这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。
  3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的词语时,要放在这些 词之后。例如:something nice.
  2.以
  2.以-ly 结尾的形容词
  1) 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。 friendly, 但 deadly, lovely, lonely, likely, lively, ugly, brotherly, 仍为形容词。 改错: (错) She sang lovely. (错) He spoke to me very friendly. (对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.
  2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词,如 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early 等。例如: The Times is a weekly paper. 《时代周刊》为周刊。 The Times is published weekly. 《时代周刊》每周发行一期。
  3.用形容词表示类别和整体
  3.用形容词表示类别和整体
  1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接,如 the dead,the living,the rich, the poor,the blind,the hungry 等。例如: The poor are losing hope. 穷人行将失去希望。
  2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如 the British,the English, the French,the Chinese 等。例如: The English have wonderful sense of humor. 英国人颇有幽默感。
  4. 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色)--出处-材料性质--类别--名词。例如: a small round table/ a tall gray building/ a dirty old brown shirt/ a famous German medical school/ an expensive Japanese sports car
  2) One day they crossed the bridge behind the palace. A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old 答案 A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+ 名词。
  3) How was your recent visit to Qingdao? It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last
  5.副词的位置
  5.副词的位置
  1) 在动词之前。
  2) 在 be 动词、助动词之后。
  3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。 注意:
a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。例如: We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.我们清楚地看到前面有奇怪的光。 b. 方式副词 well,badly,hard 等只放在句尾。例如: He speaks English well. 他英语说得好。
  6.副词的排列顺序 副词的排列顺序:
  6.副词的排列顺序:
  1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。
  2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。例如: Please write slowly and carefully. 请写得慢一些,仔细一些
  3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 改错:(错) I very like English. (对) I like English very much. 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。例如: I don't know him well enough. 他我不熟悉。 There is enough food for everyone to eat.有足够的食物供每个人吃。 There is food enough for everyone to eat.
  7.兼有两种形式的副词
  7.兼有两种形式的副词
  1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近";closely 意思是"仔细地"。例如: He is sitting close to me. 他就坐在我边上。 Watch him closely. 盯着他。
  2) late 与 lately late 意思是"晚";lately 意思是"最近"。例如: You have come too late. 你来得太晚了。 What have you been doing lately? 近来好吗?
  3) deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。例如: He pushed the stick deep into the mud.他把棍子深深插进泥里。 Even father was deeply moved by the film.老爸也被电影深深打动了。
  4) high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much。例如: The plane was flying high. 这架飞机飞得很高。 I think highly of your opinion. 你的看法很有道理。
  5) wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"。例如: He opened the door wide. 他把门开得大大的。 English is widely used in the world.英语在世界范围内广泛使用。
  6) free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"。例如: You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.无论什么时候,我这饭铺免费对你开放。 You may speak freely; say what you like.你可以畅所欲言,想说什么就说什么。
  8. 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的 等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。
  1) 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est tall 原级 taller 比较级 tallest 最高级
以不发音的 e 结尾的单音词和少数以le 结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st 以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节 词, 双写结尾的辅音字母, 再加-er,-est "以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词,改 y 为 i,再加-er,-est 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节词未尾加 -er,-est 其他双音节词和多音节词,在前面加 more,most 来构成比较级和最高级
  2) 不规则变化 原级 good well(健康的) bad ill(有病的) old much/many little far worse better
nice big busy clever/narrow important/ easily 比较级
nicer bigger busier cleverer/ narrower more important/ more easily 最高级 best worst oldest/eldest most least farthest/furthest
nicest biggest busiest cleverest/ narrowest most important/ most easily
older/elder more less farther/further

  9.as
  9.as + 形容词或副词原级 + as
  1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so… as。例如: He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。
  2)当 as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much+名词。例如: This is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外一个一样好。 I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸,我也能。
  3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。例如: This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。 Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。
  4)倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the … + of。例如: This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。 This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。 Your room is twice the size of mine. 例如:
  10. 比较级形容词或副词 + than 。例如: You are taller than I. 你比我高。 They lights in your room are brighter than those in mine.你房间的那些灯比我房间里的亮。 注意:
  1)要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is clever than his brother.
  2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger than any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.
  3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.
It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.
  4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。 比较:Which is larger, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters.
  11.可修饰比较级的词
  11.可修饰比较级的词
  1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等。
  2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。
  3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。
  12. many, old 和 far
  1) 如果后接名词时,much more +不可数名词,many more +可数名词复数。
  2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长 幼关系。例如: My elder brother is an engineer. 我哥哥是个工程师。 Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 玛丽是三姐妹中最大的。
  3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further。一般 father 表示距离,further 表示进一步。例如: I have nothing further to say. 我没什么要说了。
  13. the + 最高级 + 比较范围
  1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。例如: The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。例如: It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 这是个很重要的问题。 注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 (错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. (对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.
  2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost。例如: This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 这帽子差不多是最大的了。 注意: a. very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best. b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。例如: Africa is the second largest continent.非洲是第二大洲。
  3) 最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。例如: Mike is the most intelligent in his class. 马克是班上最聪明的。 Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.
  4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构也可以表示最高级含义。例如: Nothing is so easy as this. 没比这更简单的了。 =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing. 有关的词组,
  14. 和 more 有关的词组,
  1) the more…the more… 越……就越……。例如: The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 越努力,进步越大。
  2) more B than A=less A than B 与其说 A 不如说 B。例如: He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 他工作时,与 其说是反应慢不如说是懒。

  3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多。例如: The officials could see no more than the Emperor. 官员们看到的和皇帝一样多。 no less… than… 与……一样……。例如: He is no less diligent than you. 他和你一样勤勉。
  4) more than 不只是,非常。例如: She is more than kind to us all. 她对我们非常热心。 三.巩固练习
  1. The modern machine proved in heart surgery. a. high valuable b. highly valuable c. valuable high d. valuable highly
  2. Mr. Johnson and his daughter do not always understand each other. a. older b. the oldest c. eldest d. the eldest
  3. They thought that the truth would be finally discovered. a. little b. not c. small d. bit
  4. They hardly believe that the apartment which costs them $ 4,000 is . a. so small b. such little c. so little d. such small
  5. If a claim is kept , it is more likely to be recognized. a. live b. lived c. alive d. living
  6. On his way to school he met , so he sent him to hospital. a. very ill man b. much sick man c. serious ill man
  7. She was operated a month ago but now she was . a. very good b. very well c. healthy
  8. What I would do is to go . d. very sick man
d. good conditioned
a. really quietly somewhere b. somewhere quietly really c. really quiet somewhere d. somewhere really quiet
  9. The chairman asked to write their questions on a piece of paper and send them to the front. a. c.
  10. a. c.
  11. a.
  12. a.
  13. a.
  14. a.
  15. a.
  16. a.
  17. a.
  18. a. c.
  19. the present members b. the members presently the members present d. the presently members The price was very reasonable; I would gladly have paid he asked. three times much as b. three times as many as as three times much as d. three times as much as The trousers are , but Tom does not care a
 

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