第 4 章 动词的语气
一.概念 语气有三种:陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气.语气表示说话人对劝词所示示的动作或所处的状态持有的态度 或看法. 二.相关知识点精讲
  1.辨别
  1.辨别 if 引导真实条件句和 if 引导的虚拟条件句的区别 If he has time, he will go with us.= Probably he has time and will go with us. If he had time, he would go with us.=But in fact he has no time.
  2.虚拟条 虚拟条件句中主句和从句的谓与动词构成形式如下表
  2.虚拟条件句中主句和从句的谓与动词构成形式如下表 if 条件句中的谓与动词
  1. 行为动词用 did 形式
  2. be 动词用 were 主句的谓与动词 should would could + 动词原形 might should would could + have + done might should would could + 动词原形 might
与现在的事实相反
与过去的事实相反
had + done
与将来的事实相反

  1. 行为动词用 did
  2. should + 动词原形
  3. were to + 动词原形

  3.混合时间的虚拟语气
  3.混合时间的虚拟语气 如果条件句中的动作和主句的动作不是同时发生, 主句和从句的谓语动词的形式应分别根据各自所表示的时 间加以调整。
  1)0If I had received the passport yesterday, I would start today.
  2)If he had telephoned me last night, I would see him now.
  3)If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be all right now.
  4)If China had not been liberated, the working people would still be leading a miserable life.
  4.should/ 表示“过去本应该/可以做而实际上却没做”
  4.should/ could / might/ ought to + have done 表示“过去本应该/可以做而实际上却没做” needn’t have done 表示“过去没必要作而实际上做了”
  5.虚拟语气中的倒装句
  5.虚拟语气中的倒装句 如果虚拟语气的条件从句谓语动词中含有 were, had, could, should,有时可将 if 省去,而将条件从句的 主语置于 were, had, should, could 之后。 Had you invited us, we would have come to your party. Were I you, I would do more practice after class. Could she lend us a helping hand, she would do so.
  6.wish 后面的宾语从句的谓语动词应使用虚拟语气, 表示“可惜… 就好了; 悔不该… 但愿…
  6.wish 后面的宾语从句的谓语动词应使用虚拟语气, 表示“可惜…;….就好了; 悔不该…; 但愿…。” 主句谓语 时态 现在时 表示与 wish 同时发生 wish 过去时 表示在 wish 之前发生的动作 将来时 表示在 wish 之后发生的动作
  1)I wish I knew the key to the answer. 从句谓语 谓语动词的形式 动词用过去时 be 动词用 were 动词用 had done be 用 had been 动词用 would do; should do be 用 would be ; should be

  2)I wish I were ten years younger.
  3)I wish that I had gone to the football match last week.
  4)I wish that you had been here yesterday.
  5)He wishes that we would visit the old school.
  7.表示命令或建议动词
  7.表示命令或建议动词 suggest, insist, propose, desire, demand, request, order, command 后的宾语从 should +动词原形 动词原形; 来替代; 主句所使用的动词时态不限。 句中应使用虚拟 should +动词原形; should 不可用 would 来替代; 主句所使用的动词时态不限。
  8.suggest 建议去做… 命令…” …”从句用
  8.suggest 为“建议去做…; 命令…”从句用 should + do 为“ 说明; 暗示”, 从句用过去时或过去完成时。
  1) The doctor suggested that I should take the medicine three times a day.
  2) The doctor suggested that my grandmother had caught a bad cold.
  9.in insist 坚持要去做… 坚持应该去做” 坚持表明,坚持说/解释”
  9.insist “坚持要去做…,坚持应该去做”,从句用 should + do 为“坚持表明,坚持说/解释”, 从句用过 去时或过去完成时。 去时或过去完成时。
  10.虚拟语气也用于表语从句和主语从句中 表示间接的命令、要求、请求、建议、决定等, 虚拟语气也用于表语从句和主语从句中,
  10.虚拟语气也用于表语从句和主语从句中,表示间接的命令、要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句的主语通常是 +动词原型 动词原型, suggestion, proposal, request, order, idea 等。表语从句中的谓语动词是 should +动词原型,should 可 以省略。 以省略。
  11.在主语从句中 当从句用来表示惊奇、 在主语从句中, 当从句用来表示惊奇、 不相信、 惋惜等, 从句的谓语动词用需拟语气形式。
  11.在主语从句中, 不相信、 惋惜等, 从句的谓语动词用需拟语气形式。 其谓语动词时 should 词原型, 省略。 + 动词原型, 或 should 省略。 三.巩固练习

  1. If there were no subjunctive mood, English much easier.
A. will be B. would have been C. could have been D. would be
  2. If I you, I’d join the army. A. am B. was C. were D. would be
  3. If he tomorrow, he would find Mr Wang in the office. A. comes B. will come C. should come D. come
  4. If it next week , the crops would be saved. A. rains B. will rains C. would rain D. should rain
  5. If I it, I would do it in a different way. A. were to do B. do C. had done D. was to do
  6. Supposing the weather bad, where would you go ? A. is B. will be C. were D. be
  7. If he had worked harder, he . A. would succeed B. had succeeded C. should succeed D. would have succeeded
  8. If he , he that food. A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken
  9. If my lawyer here last Saturday, he me from going. A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented
  10. If he it, he it. A. had seen; could have believed B. saw; couldn’t believe C. saw; couldn’t have believed D. has seen; had believed

  11. ?Do you think the thief entered through the window? ?No, if he had, I don’t believe, broken the living-room’s window. A. he would have B. he must have C. he had D. should he have
  12. ?Did you go swimming last Sunday? ?No. We would have gone nicer. A. if the weather was B. would the weather have been C. had the weather been D. should the weather be
  13. it for your help, I couldn’t have made any progress. A. Had; not been B. Should; not been C. Did; not been D. Not; been
  14. today, he would get there by Friday. A. Would have left B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leaves
  15. It is ordered that a new bridge over the wide river. A. should be built B. would built C. will be built D. built 四.答案
  1.D
  2.C
  3.C
  4.D
  5.A
  6.C
  7.D
  8.B
  9.A
  10.A
  11.D
  12.C
  13.A
  14.C
  15.A
 

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