2011 届高考英语二轮专题复习学案: 专题一 语法和词汇知识之定语从句(
  7) (新课标) 【专题考点】 1 考查关系代词引导的非限制性定语从句 2 考查关系副词引导的限制性定语从句 3 考查“介词+关系代词”的定语从句 4 在疑问句、倒装句和强调句中考查定语从句 5 通过拆分词组和固定搭配或者添加插入语或状语来考查定语从句 【典例探究】
  1. (2010? 全国卷 I? T
  24)As a child, Jack studied in a village school, is named after his grandfather. A. which B. where C. what D. that 【解析】选 A。根据句子结构以及选项可知是考查非限制性定语从句,从句中缺少主语。此处关系代词 which 代指前面的 a village school,并在从句中主语。where 是关系副词,不能在从句中作主语,what 不属于关系代词,关系代词 that 不能用 于非限制性定语从句中。 【知识拓展】关系代词 which 与 that 几个能与不能
  1. which 与 that 引导的定语从句不能位于句首。
  2. which 可以引导非限制性定语从句,而 that 不能。
  3.当先行词是一些不定代词如 everything, nothing, none 等时,能用 that 引导的后面的定语从句,不能用 which。
  4. 当先行词是序数词或最高级或者先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时,能用 that 引导的后面的定语从句,不能用 which。
  5. 当先行词被 the only 修饰或者先行词既指人又指物时,能用 that 引导的后面的定语从句,不能用 which。
  6. which 能直接位于介词之后,而 that 不能。 例如:
  1)Everything that went wrong made Jack mad, which also worried us.出错的一切事情使的杰克发疯,这使我们很担心。 (that went wrong 是限制性定语从句修饰前面的 Everything, that 在从句中作主语。which also worried us 是 which 引导的非限制 性定语从句,which 指代前面整句话的内容,并在从句中作主语。 )
  2)We talked of the film and its leading actor that we liked.我们谈起我们喜欢的那部电影以及电影中的男主角。(先行词是 the film and its leading actor,所以只能用 that 引导后面的定语从句)
  3)The most beautiful building that I have seen is located on a river in Qinghai Province.我见过的最美的建筑位于青海省的一条 河上。(先行词 building 前面有最高级修饰所以要用 that t 引导后面的定语从句)
  2、 (2010?江苏卷?T
  32)The newly-built cafe, the walls of are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, especially after hard work. A. that B. it C. what D. which 【解析】选 D。句意:新建的咖啡馆的墙被涂成了浅绿色。对我们来说,它真是个安宁的地方,尤其是在辛苦的工作之后。 根据定语从句方面的语法知识,我们可以判断出本题中 The newly-built cafe 是先行词,后面用“名词+介词+ which”来引起定 语从句,所以我们可以得出正确选项 D。 【知识拓展】关于“名词+介词+ which / whom”类型的定语从句 这种类型的定语从句语序可以调整,并且可以转换成 whose 引导的定语从句。 The sum of money will be given to any student, the family of whom is poor. The sum of money will be given to any student, of whom the family is poor. The sum of money will be given to any student, whose family is poor. 有时候,我们还用“代词(数词)+介词+ which / whom”类型的定语从句。这种定语从句的语序可以调整,一般不可以转换 成 whose 引导的定语从句。 There are about 3000 workers in this company, two thirds of whom are women. There are about 3000 workers in this company, of whom two thirds are women.
  3、 (2010?福建卷?T
  24) Stephen Hawking believes that earth is unlikely to be the only planet life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 【解析】选 B。分析句子结构可知,所填词引导定语从句,修饰先行词 the only planet,在从句中作状语,所以关系副词 where 符合要求。关系代词 that 和 which 通常在句中作主语或宾语;whose 通常在句中作定语,均不符合要求。 【知识拓展】关系副词的拆分 在很多情况下, 引导定语从句的关系副词都可以拆分成“介词+关系代词”的形式。 引导定语从句的关系副词有: when, where 和 why。 像 2010 年福建卷第 24 题中的 where 结合先行词 the only planet 就可拆分成 on which,在意思上相当于 on the only planet,
可将定语从句还原成:Life has developed gradually on the only planet.。 再看下面两个例子:
  1. 2010 is a special year for the people of Shanghai, when they can visit so many exhibition halls. 2010 年对于上海人来说是特别的一年,在这一年他们能够参观那么多的展馆。 关系副词 when 引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词 20
  10,并在从句中作时间状语,when 可以拆分成 in which,在意思相当于 in 20
  10。
  2. He didn’t explain the reason why he had demanded a pay rise. 他没有解释他要求加薪的原因。 关系副词 why 引导一个定语从句修饰先行词 the reason,在从句中作原因状语,why 可以拆分成 for which,在意思上相当 于 for the reason。
  4、 (2010?重庆卷?T
  28)In China ,the number of cities is increasing development is recognized across the world. A. where B. which C. whose D. that 【解析】选 C。句意:在中国城市的数量在增加,这些城市的发展受到了全世界的认可。根据句法结构主句是 the number of cities is increasing,先行词是 cities,空缺处代替先行词在后面定语从句中做定语,相当于 cities’development, 四个选项中只 有关系代词 whose 在从句中做定语,可以是人也可以是物.所以正确答案是 C, 该定语从句为分割性的定语从句, 先行词与定 语从句被分割开来。 【知识拓展】where/ which / whose /that 在定语从句中的作用 Where 关系副词,表地点,只能跟在表地点的名词后,在定语从句中做地点状语 Which 关系代词,代表物,在定语从句中做主语,宾语,作宾语时可以省略. That 关系代词,既指人又指物,在从句中做主语,宾语或表语. whose 关系代词,以是人也可以是物,在从句中做定语. What is the name of the town where we stayed last night? 我们昨天晚上留宿的那个镇叫什么名字? The house whose roof was damaged has now been repaired. 屋顶损坏的那所房子现在已经修好了. They planted the trees which don’t need much water. 他们种植的那些树木不需要浇太多的水. After a score of years,John is not the naughty boy that he used to be. 二十年后,约翰不再是当年那个淘气的男孩了.
  5、(2010?浙江?T
  3)The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of __ left their village homes for a better life in the city. A. whom B. which C. them D. those 【解析】选 A。考查非限制性定语从句用法。“不定代词/数词+of whom(指人)/which(指物) ”为非限制性定语从句用法,表示 “整体中的一部分”,由于前面的先行词为 people, 所以答案为 A。 【跟踪演练】
  1、 (2011?山东枣庄高三第一次质检) The old lady likes to spend time indoors, she can comfortably watch television and read newspapers. A. when B. that C. which D. where
  2、 (2011?辽宁抚顺六校联合体高三一模) Last night Kate came across the man you think is pleasant to . A. who; get along B. who; talk C. who; work with D. whom; get along
  3、2011? ( 浙江杭州七校高三上期中联考) There are altogether fifty-four students in our class, is a new comer from a faraway mountain village. A. the most diligent of who B. but the most diligent of whom C. the most diligent of them D. of whom the most diligent
  4、 (2010?吉林省实验中学二模)
  1. The physics teacher was standing by the desk, explaining the exercise the students had done at home. A. / B. to C. for D. with
  5、(2010?吉林省实验中学二模) Last month, he paid a visit to the village he had once worked in for six years, he
  13. will never forget. A. where; which B. where; when C. that; which D. in which; that the Chinese government attaches great importance,
  6、 (2010?江苏省宁海外国语学校二模)
  27.Education reform, has attracted a lot of public attention. A.in which B.to which C.in that D.to that
7 、 (2010?江西省吉安二模)
  27.Where did you find the package? It was on the beach we were taking a walk. A.where B.that C.when D.which
  8、 (2010?山东省威海市二次模)
  26. Are there any restaurants in Beijing authentic Mexican food? A. serve B. that serving C. that serve D. serves
  9、 (2010?山西省大同五中二模)
  28.Besides hotels ,there are also families visitors can experience the warmth and kindness of the local people. A which B that C what D where
  10. English online. com is a free site visitors can not just learn the English language but also chat online. A. where B. which C. that D. what
  11. This term the students in our province are studying a new course called Life Guidance, covers possible real life issues. A. whose B. which C. that D. what
  12. He was so pleased with all we had done for him he wrote us a letter to praise for it. A. what; what B. what; that C. that; what D. that; that
  13. Yao Ming set up his My Space Page he could respond to his fans. A. when B. what C. that D. where
  14. The moon travels round the earth once every month, is known to everybody. A. it B. as C. that D. what
  15. The music drama, the pop singer Sha Baoliang stars, comes from the story of the “Butterfly Lovers”. A. which B. of which C. who D. in which
  16. After graduating from high school, you will reach a point in your life you need to decide what to do. A. that B. what C. which D. where
  17. Books bring us into the presence of the greatest minds have ever lived. A. which B. who C. 不填 D. that
  18. After the adjustment of financial policies, many netizens put up posts, 90 percent carried the message of approval. A. of which B. of whom C. of them D. of what
  19. Wishing to get a million in the lottery(彩票), many among us now do, is simply foolish. A. which B. what C. that D. as
  20. In our next English class the cases will be offered to you these phrases can be used together. A. that B. which C. who D. where
  21. All the neighbours admire this family, the children and parents build up a friendly relationship. A. why B. where C. which D. that
  22. is often the case with elder people, my grandma, talked about my new hairstyle for at least 50 minutes nonstop. A. That B. Which C. As D. It
  23. Folk experts believe that the Mid-Autumn Festival is second only to the Chinese New Year, express the value of the Chinese nation-family values. A. both of them B. both of whom C. both of which D. either of which
  24. The novel was completed in 1978, the economic system has seen great changes. A. when B. during which C. since then D. since when
  25. The residents were warned of high temperatures and strong winds of forecast for Friday, could make the still-burning wildfires more dangerous. A. when B. which C. that D. where
  26. As a result of our serious staffing shortages, the situation has arisen we have to hire graduating college students for help. A. that B. when C. where D. as
  27. I hope the little I have been able to do will do good to the partnership between us two schools. A. which B. that C. what D. as
  28. As a coach, you should know clearly about the direction your team should develop. A. to which B. in which C. on which D. for which
  29. Pointing to the house on roof grew lots of bush, the old man told me that was I would stay. A. its; what B. whose; what C. whose; where D. its; where
  30. An Iraqi reporter during a news conference threw his shoes at Bush and called him a dog in Arabic shocked the world. A. who B. where C. whom D. which

  31. It was in the factory his friend worked he picked up a lot of experience. A. where; where B. that; where C. that; that D. where; that
  32. I’m told that languagepractising. com is a free website learners can not just learn various languages but also chat online. A. where B. which C. that D. what
  33. Is it the years you worked in Africa as a doctor have a great effect on your literary works? A. that; where B. that; that C. when; where D. when; that
  34. This is a film that could make a boy like me, never been to New York, fall in love with the place. A. who’ve B. who have C. who’s D. who is
  35. The time is not far away ordinary people can get on board a spaceship and take a trip to space. A. as B. until C. before D. when
  36. Luo Jing, broadcasting style lots of Chinese appreciate, died as the result of cancer. A. whom B. of whom C. whose D. his
  37. I have the same magazine you bought just now. A. which B. like C. that D. as
  38. Beijing was attacked by such a terrible rainstorm few citizens had e
 

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