2011 届高考英语二轮专题复习学案:
专题一 语法和词汇知识之非谓语动词
【专题考点】 1 考查动词的-ing 形式和动词不定式作宾语时的区别 2 以考查动词不定式、动词的-ing 形式和过去分词作定语、状语、宾语补足语为重点 3 考查独立主格结构 4 试题特点将呈现“情景化”和“设问角度多样化”,充分利用非谓语动词间的互相干扰 5 利用祈使句和以非谓语动词开头的句子结构上相似的特点增加试题难度 【典例探究】 1 (2010?全国卷 I?T
  27) Mrs. White showed her students some old maps from the library. A. to borrow B. to be borrowed C. borrowed D. borrowing 【解析】选 C。句意:Mrs. White 让她的学生看了一些从图书馆借来的旧地图。根据句意以 及句子结构可知此处需要非谓语动词作定语修饰前面的 some old maps。又 some old maps 与 borrow 是被动关系,故排除 A、D。根据句意可知 borrow 这个动作已被完成,所以选 C。 过去分词表示被动、完成,而不定式的被动式表示将来的被动动作。 【知识拓展】非谓语动词的三种形式作状语
  1.动词不定式与-ing 形式作状语时,与句子的主语是逻辑上的主动关系,过去分词与句子的 主语是逻辑上的被动关系。
  2. .动词不定式可表示目的、结果状语,有时表示结果状语时,强调意外的结果。
  3. -ing 形式与过去分词除了不能表示目的外,可以表示原因、时间、条件、让步、伴随、结 果等。-ing 形式表示结果时,强调顺其自然的结果。 例如:
  1)To achieve my goal, I must work hard.为了实现我的目标,我必须努力。 (.动词不定式表示 目的)
  2)We hurried home, only to find my parents were not at home.我们匆忙到家,结果却发现父母 不在。 (.动词不定式表示意外的结果)
  3) Seen from the window, the picture is not clear.从窗户那儿看, 这幅画不清楚。主语 the picture ( 与 see 是逻辑上的被动关系) =Seeing from the window, she finds the picture is not clear. 从窗户那儿看,她发现这幅画不清 楚。 (主语 she 与 see 是逻辑上的主动关系)
  4) The price of buildings has been going up, making many people worried.房价不断上涨, 使的很 多人担心。 (-ing 形式表示顺其自然的结果)
  2、 (2010?江苏卷?T
  28)The retired man donated most of his savings to the school damaged by the earthquake in Yushu, the students to return to their classrooms. A. enabling B. having enabled C. to enable D. to have enabled 【解析】选 A。句意:那个退休的人把他大部分的积蓄捐献给了玉树地震中受损的学校,使 得学生们能够重返教室。本题考查动词的-ing 形式作结果状语(自然而然的结果) B 和 D ; 项均为完成式,表示 enable 这个动作先发生,这与语境矛盾,故排除;C 项是不定式作结果 状语,多用于表示出乎意料的结果。所以选择 A 项。 【知识拓展】-ing 形式与不定式作结果状语的区别
1
ing 形式作结果状语表示一定逻辑的结果,即意料之中的结果,其作用相当于一个非限制性 的定语从句;而不定式作结果状语通常表示非逻辑的结果,即出乎意料的结果,不定式多与 only 连用。 ①A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city, killing all four people on board. =…, which killed all four people on board. ②Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, reaching a record US$
  57.65 a barrel on April
  4. =…, which reached a record … ③The news reporters hurried to the airport, only to be told the film stars had left. ④A lot of new machines were applied in the factory, thus resulting in a production increase. =…, which thus resulted in a production increase. ⑤He hurriedly had his breakfast and took a taxi to the station, only to find the train had left half an hour before.
  3、 (2010?山东卷?T
  29)The living room is clean and tidy, with a dining table already for a meal to be cooked. A. laid B. laying C. to lay D. being laid 【解析】选 A。考查非谓语动词。句意为:客厅干净、整洁,一张餐桌已经摆好,分析句子 结构可知,此句为 with 宾语复合结构,其中 lay 与 a dining table 准备要吃一顿饭。为逻辑上 的动宾关系,故要用过去分词。 【知识拓展】 非谓语动词用法的考查角度: (
  1)非谓语动词在句中作状语 They landed the plane, using the computers less powerful than the ones used in the average schools today. Having been cut off from the outside world for a week, they have lost the last hope of surviving. (
  2) 非谓语动词在句中作定语 The computer center, opened in 2004, is intended to help the researchers to search for the relevant information on the internet. (
  3) 非谓语动词在句中作宾语补足语 I’d like to have my package weighed. They are sitting in front of the TV set, watching the player competing against their rivals. (
  4) 非谓语动词在 with 宾语复合结构中的考查 With so many people coming to their help, the villagers found it much easier to overcome the difficulties they had after the flood. (
  5) 非谓语动词在独立主格中的考查 We finally came to a very beautiful house, its owner seated in the armchair, reading leisurely in the yard.
  4、 (2010?江西卷?T
  32). There were many talented actors out there just waiting . A. to discover B. to be discovered C. discovered D. being discovered 【解析】选 B。句意: 外面有很多有才华的演员等着被发现。wait 后加不定式作宾语, 排 除 C、 D 两项; 且 discover 与 actors 之间是动宾关系, 故用不定式的被动语态。
  5、 (2010?安徽卷?T
  30) He had a wonderful childhood, with his mother to all corners of the world A. travel B. to travel C. traveled D. traveling 【解析】选 D。句意:他有一个美好的童年,他和妈妈一起游遍了世界各地。had 是句子的
2
谓语, 所以逗号后面不能用 travel 这种谓语动词形式, 应用非谓语动词形式作伴随状语, travel 和逻辑主语 he 是主动关系,所以要用现在分词作伴随状语。 【跟踪演练】
  1、 (2011?辽宁抚顺六校联合体高三一模)that you are chosen to be a volunteer at the London Olympic Games, what will you do? A. Assumed B. Assuming C. To assume D. To be assumed
  2、 (2011?江西南昌一中、 南昌十中联考) The children all turned the famous actress as she entered the classroom. A.looked at B.to look at C.to looking at D.look at
  3、 (2011? 山东潍坊高三 11 月质检)The murderer ran away from his village, trying to avoid by the police, but in vain. A.to be caught B.being caught C.to be catching D.to catch 4 (2010?浙江省菱湖中学二模) Great efforts
  11. grain production must be made if food shortages are to be avoided. A.to have increased B.increased C.to increase D.to be increased
  5(2010?山西省大同五中二模)
  35.I walked out of the cinema, I’d never come back to this hell of a place, A determining B decided C to determine D to decide
  6(2010?上海市崇明县二模)
  31. The wild flowers looked like a soft orange blanket the desert. A. to cover B. covered C. cover D. covering
  7. A few yards down Colson street, she caught sight of a figure in the opposite direction. A. to hurry B. to be hurrying C. hurrying D. having hurried 8 The residents approve of the measures so far in our city, to bring a sharp rise in oil prices. A. having been taken; intended B. to be taken; intending C. taken; to intend D. taken; intended
  9. Teamwork is very important in modern society. an effective team member, you need to develop a teamwork attitude. A. Become B. Becoming C. Having become D. To become
  10. There will be more than 750 projects, creating nearly 40, 000 jobs starting this summer, including 15, 000 in a Youth Conservation Corps. A. started B. to be started C. starting D. to start
  11. The girl came to the cinema only the tickets had been sold out. A. to run; telling B. running; to be told
3
C. and ran; being told D. running; to tell
  12. These surveys indicate that many crimes go by the police, mainly because not all victims report them. A. unrecorded B. to be unrecorded C. to have been unrecorded D. unrecording
  13. Brandon worked for hours after school money for her education. A. making B. made C. to make D. having made
  14. true events, the film follows the life of Braddock, a boxer in New York. A. Being based on B. Basing on C. Based on D. Having based on
  15. I walked out of the cinema, I’d never come back to this hell of a place. A. determining B. decided C. to determine D. to decide
  16. The moving picture of a little boy of 5, from the big earthquake, has been made to all Chinese people for the boy’s saluting to the soldiers. A. saved; to know B. to save; knowing C. have been saved; know D. saved; known
  17. The time and effort he has devoted during the past few years trees in that remote area is now considered to be of great value. A. to planting B. to plant C. Plant D. planting
  18. The teacher called Tom to his office because he was caught in the exam. A. to cheat B. cheating C. cheated D. cheat
  19. It is reported that some wild animals were found in a big cave in the mountain. A. to hide dead B. hidden dead C. hiding dead D. hidden death
  20. Most students in our class prefer taking pains in our studies to with a better education. A. equip B. equipping C. be equipped D. being equipped
  21. When he came back three hours later, they were still sitting on the sofa, in conversation. A. absorbing B. absorbed C. to absorb D. to be absorbed
  22. After her success as a child actor, Taylor had no trouble into adult roles and won twice for Best Actress. A. to move B. move C. moved D. moving
  23. Henry, the experiment as I showed you just now, or you will not pass.
4
A. do B. does C. doing D. done
  24. If the building project by the end of this month is delayed, the construction company. A. to be completed; will be fined B. is completed; is fined C. being completed; will be fined D. completed; is being fined
  25. all the required papers, he didn’t answer the questions fluently in class. A. Having not read B. Not having read C. Not read D. Not to read
  26. The little girl showed no anxiety before the competition. She seemed it pretty well. A. to prepare B. preparing C. having prepared D. to have prepared
  27. In his victory speech, before a huge crowd of his supporters, Obama declared that“Change has come to America. ” A. having delivered B. to be delivered C. delivering D. delivered
  28. ?Does Shelly like shopping? ?Well, she would rather spend time at home than in the street. A. read; wander B. reading; wander C. in reading; to wander D. reading; to wander
  29. to attend the course he is not interested in, Brown always prefers at home to do what he likes. A. To go; to stay B. To going; to stay C. To going; staying D. To go; staying
  30(2010? 福建省八闽高中二模)
  34. The schedule, originally out last week, had to be cancelled because of the unexpected snow storm. A. carried B. to be carried C. being carried D. was carried
  31. to a university in the UK, international students must display a strong ability in spoken and written English. A. Having been admitted B. To be admitted C. Being admitted D. Admitted 【解析】选 B。不定式作目的状语。
  32. The computer programs are a puzzle to me. The more I think of them, the more questions I think of. A. ask B. asked C. being asked D. to ask
  33. Beijing National Stadium, the showpiece of the Beijing Olympics, has fallen into disuse since the end of the games, it difficult to make a profit. A. make B. to make C. making D. made
  34. With all the magazines I needed, I left the post office. A. buying B. to buy C. bought D. to be bought
5

  35. from lightweight materials, the robots are about the size of a human arm or smaller. A. To build B. Being built C. Having built D. Built
答案 1B 2B 3B 4 C 5A 6 D
  7.【解析】选 C。考查非谓语动词。hurrying 为动名词, 作介词 of 的宾语, a figure 作动名词 hurrying 的逻辑主语。 8 【解析】选 D。考查非谓语动词。take measures 是固定短语。本题中 take 与 measures 是 动宾关系; be intended to (do) 意思是“打算(做/用做……)”, 在本题中用来修饰 measures。
  9.【解析】选 D。考查非谓语动词。此处是不定式作目的状语, 即“要想成为一名高效的队员, 就需要培养团队协作意识”。
  10. 解析】 B。 【 选 考查非谓语动词。 There will be. . . 可知工程还未启动, 故排除 A、 又 由 C; 由 projects 与 start 之间为被动关系, 故选 B。
  11.【解析】选 B。考查非谓语动词。第一个空为 came 的伴随状语, 第二个空为不定式作结 果状语, 表意外, 且与主语 the girl 之间存在动宾关系, 故应用不定式的被动
 

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