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阅读理解之科技类( ) 新课标) (新课标 专题三 阅读理解之科技类(
  3) 新课标) (
三、科技类
【典例探究】
(2010?山东卷?D) Batteries can power anything from small sensors to large systems. While scientists are finding ways to make them smaller but even more powerful, problems can arise when these batteries are much larger and heavier than the devices themselves. University of Missouri(MU) researchers are developing a nuclear energy source that is smaller, lighter and more efficient. “To provide enough power, we need certain methods with high energy density(密度)”,said Jae Kwon, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at MU. “The radioisotope(放射 性同位素) battery can provide power density that is much higher than chemical batteries.” Kwon and his research team have been working on building a small nuclear battery, presently the size and thickness of a penny, intended to power various micro/nanoelectromechanreal systems (M/NEMS). Although nuclear batteries can cause concerns, Kwon said they are safe. “People hear the word ‘nuclear’ and think of something very dangerous,” he said, “However, nuclear power sources have already been safely powering a variety of devices, such as pace-makers, space satellites and underwater systems.” His new idea is not only in the battery’s size, but also in its semiconductor(半导体). Kwon’s battery uses a liquid semiconductor rather than a solid semiconductor. “The key part of using a radioactive battery is that when you harvest the energy, part of the radiation energy can damage the lattice structure(晶体结构) of the solid semiconductor,” Kwon said, “By using a liquid semiconductor, we believe we can minimize that problem.” Together with J. David Robertson, chemistry professor and associate director of the MU Research Reactor, Kwon is working to build and test the battery. In the future, they hope to increase the battery’s power, shrink its size and try with various other materials. Kwon said that battery could be thinner than the thickness of human hair. 【文章大意】本篇为科普短文,介绍由美国密苏里大学研究者所开发的核能电池的情况。
  71. Which of the following is true of Jae Kwon? A. He teaches chemistry at MU. B. He developed a chemical battery.
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C. He is working on a nuclear energy source. D. He made a breakthrough in computer engineering.
  72. Jae Kwon gave examples in Paragraph
  4. A. to show chemical batteries are widely applied. used. C. to describe a nuclear-powered system.
  73. Liquid semiconductor is used to . A. get rid of the radioactive waste C. decrease the size of nuclear batteries B. test the power of nuclear batteries. D. reduce the damage to lattice structure. D. to introduce various energy sources. B. to introduce nuclear batteries can be safely

  74. According to Jae Kwon, his nuclear battery . A. uses a solid semiconductor C. could be extremely thin B. will soon replace the present ones. D. has passed the final test.

  75. The text is most probably a . A. science news report C. newspaper ad 【答案解析】
  71. 【解析】选 C。细节理解题。根据第一段的 University of Missouri(MU) researchers are developing a nuclear energy source that is smaller, lighter and more efficient 及第三段的叙述可 知,Kwon 在研究一种核能电池,所以 C 项正确。
  72. 【解析】选 B。细节理解题。根据文章第四段可知 Kwon 举例的目的是为了说明核能电 池是安全性。
  73. 【解析】选 D。 细节理解题。根据 part of the radiation energy can damage the lattice structure(晶体结构) of the solid semiconductor,”及“By using a liquid semiconductor, we believe we can minimize that problem.”可知,通过使用液态半导体材料,可减少对晶体结构的破坏。
  74. 【解析】 C。 细节理解题。 选 根据 Kwon said that battery could be thinner than the thickness of human hair 可知 C 项正确。
  75. 【解析】选 A。推理判断题。本文讲述了 Kwon 的原子能电池的有关情况,文章体裁应 属于科普文章,所以 A 项正确。 B. book review D. science fiction story
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【跟踪演练】

  1、 (2011?安徽省巢湖市高三第一次教学质量检测) Scientists have found that human eyes are more likely to be damaged by UV rays (紫外线) while skiing in the snow-covered areas than sitting on the beach, according to a report by the UK newspaper The Telegraph. The researchers at Kanazawa Medical University, Japan and American company Johnson Johnson conducted the study together. They looked at the effects of light reflection on newly fallen snow on a ski trail (a rough path) in Ishikawa District, northern Japan. They compared the results with the levels of UV rays on a sand beach in southern Japan's Okinawa District. They found that on the beach, eyes are exposed to a daily 260 kilojoules (千焦耳) of UV a square meter compared to 658 kilojoules in snow-covered areas. The findings are supported by the Japan Meteorological Agency. According to the agen- cy, the reflection rate of UV light on beaches is often between 10 and 25 percent, compared to 80 percent in the new snow areas. The amount of light increased 4 percent with a 300-meter rise in height. Most of us know that UV rays can harm the skin. That's why we wear sunscreen on our skin before we get out in the sun. But many of us may not realize that UV rays are also harmful to the eyes. If your eyes are exposed to large amounts of UV radiation over a short period of time, you may experience a kind of sunburn of the eye, which is harmful. Your eyes will become red and feel a strange feeling. They may be sensitive to light. Fortunately, this is usually temporary (暂时 的) and seldom causes permanent damage to the eyes. Long-term exposure to UV radiation, however, can be more serious. Scientific studies and researches have shown that exposure to small amounts of UV radiation over a period of many years increases the chance of eye damage, which could lead to total blindness.
  67. You would most likely find the article in A. a doctor's diary B. a travel journal
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C. a medical magazine D. a physics textbook

  68. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? A. Too much eye exposure to UV rays may cause total blindness. B. Short-time exposure of the eyes to UV rays doesn't harm them at all. C. Most people know that UV rays harm the eyes as well as the skin. D. The study was conducted by researchers from Japan, the USA and the UK.
  69. The underlined word "sunscreen" in Paragraph 5 most probably means . A. sunglasses B. sunhat C. suncream D. sunburn

  70. What will the passage most probably talk about next? A. Never ski on newly fallen snow in Japan. B. Go to hospital to have your eyes examined. C. Wearing a hat can provide protection while skiing in new snow areas. D. Take some measures to protect your eyes while skiing in new snow areas.
  2、(2010? 河北省衡水中学三模 A 卷) you dash outdoors in the middle of winter, you might As make it halfway down the block before realizing that your ears are freezing because you forgot your hat. Now, scientists have shown that even though you’ve had an apparent memory lapse(丧失), your brain never forgot what you should have done. Memory works mainly by association. For example, as you try to remember where you left your keys, you might recall you last had them in the living room, which reminds you that there was an ad for soap on television, which reminds you that you need soap, and so on. And then, as you’re heading out of the door to buy soap, you remem ber that your keys are on the kitchen counter. Your brain knew where the keys were all along. It just took a round-about way to get there. Now, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies are studying associative memory in monkeys to figure out just how this complicated process works. First, the researchers trained a group of monkeys to remember arbitrary(任意的) pairs of symbols. The researchers showed the monkeys one symbol(cold weather) and then gave them the choice of two other symbols, one of which (a hat) would be associated with the first. A correct choice would earn them a sip of their favorite juice.
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Most of the monkeys performed the test perfectly, but one kept making mistakes. “We wondered what happened in the brain when the monkey made the wrong choice, although it apparently learned the right pairing of symbols,” said study leader Thomas Albright. Albright and his team observed signals from the nerve cells in the monkey’s inferior temporal cortex (ITC), an area of its brain used for visual pattern recognition and for storing this type of memory. As the monkey was deciding which symbol to choose, about a quarter of the activity in the ITC was due to the choice behavior. Meanwhile, more than half the activity was in a different group of nerve cells, which scientists believe represent the monkey’s memory of the correct symbol pairing, and surprisingly, these cells continued to fire even when the monkey chose the wrong symbol. “In this sense, the cells ‘knew’ more than the monkeys let on in their behavior,” Albright said. “Thus, behavior may vary, but knowledge endures.”
  57.The example of the keys and soap is given to explain the relationship between . A.memory lapse and human brain C.memory and television ads B.memory and association D.memory and our daily life

  58.Which of the following best expresses the general idea of the text? A.Your brain may forget something, but not always. B.Activity is a round-about way to memory. C.Your brain remembers what you forget. D.Monkeys have better memory than us.
  59.The researchers believe the monkey that made the wrong choice . A.also knew the correct answer C.failed to see the objects well B.had the worst memory D.had some trouble with its nerve system

  60.The underlined word “endures” may be best replaced by . A.disappears B.increases C.improves D.remains

  3、 (2010?河北省正定中学三模)When important events are happening around the world, most people turn to traditional media sources, such as CNN and BBC for the news. However, during the war in Iraq in 2003, many people followed the war from the point of view of an unknown Iraqi citizen who called himself “Salam Pax ” .(Salam Pax means peace)
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Salam Pax wrote a diary about everyday life in Baghdad during the war, and posted it on his website.Pax’s online diary was a kind of website known as a “blog”.Blogs are online diaries, usually kept by individuals, but sometimes by companies and other groups of people. They are the fastest growing types of website on the Internet. A blog differs from a traditional website in several ways.Most importantly, it is updated much more regularly.Many blogs are updated every day, and some are updated several times a day.Also, most blogs use special software or websites, which can help ordinary people easily set up and start writing their own blogs. There are many different kinds of blogs.The most popular type is an online diary of links where the blog writer surfs the Internet and then posts links to sites or news articles that they find interesting , with a few comments about each one .Other types are personal diaries, where the writer talks about their life and feelings.Sometimes these blogs can be very personal. There is another kind of blogging, called “moblogging ”, short for “ mobile blogging ”. Mobloggers use mobile phones with cameras to take photos, which are posted instantly to the Internet.The use of mobile phones in this way made the headlines in Singapore when a high school student posted a movie he had taken of a teacher shouting at another student on the Internet.Many people were shocked by what the student did, and wanted phones with cameras to be banned from schools. Many people think that as blogs become common, news reporting will rely less on big media companies, and more on ordinary people posting news to the Internet.They think that then the news will be less like a lecture, and more like a conversation, where any one can join in.
  49.Which statement about Salam Pax was true? A.He worked for CNN. B.Salam Pax was not his real name C.He was famous as a host in BBC D.He used a mobile phone for his blog
  50.What is the biggest difference between blogs and traditional websites? A.Blogs are updated much more often C.Blogs use special software B.Blogs contain links to other websites D.Blogs contain personal information

  51.According to the passage, which statement about the future is most likely ? In the future …
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