定语从句
一、关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词who,whom,whose,which,that引导定语从句时,可在 从句中作主语、宾语、定语等句子成分。who代指人,作主语或宾 语;whom代指人,作动词宾语或介词宾语;whose代指人(=of whom)或物(=of which),作定语;which代指物,作主语或宾语; that代指人或物,作主语、宾语或表语。 This is the detective who came from London. The book which/that I am reading is written by Thomas Hardy. The desk whose leg is broken is very old. He is no longer the boy that he used to be two years ago.
使用关系代词时应注意以下几点: (
  1)“介词+关系代词”可以引导定语从句,但关系代词只可用 whom或which,不可用who或that。 The room in which there is a machine is a workshop. In the dark street,there wasn’t a single person to whom she could turn for help. (
  2)“whose +n.”引导定语从句时,可换成“the +n.+ of whom/ which”或“of which + the +n.”。 He lives in a big house whose window faces the sea. He lives in a big house the window of which faces the sea. He lives in a big house of which the window faces the sea.
(
  3)which引导的定语从句还可修饰前面整个主句,此时which相当 于and this。 He succeeded in the competition,which made his parents very happy. The weather turned out to be very good,which was more than we could expect. 【注】 判断定语从句用什么引导词的关键是看先行词在从句中 作什么成分。 I’ll never forget the day that/which I spent with you on the farm.(先行 词the day作spent的宾语:I spent the day with you on the farm.) I’ll never forget the day when I worked together with you on the farm.(先行词the day在从句中作状语:I worked together with you on the farm on that day.)
He works in the factory which makes color TV sets.(先行词the factory在从 句中作主语:The factory makes color TV sets.) He works in the factory where color TV sets are made.(先行词the factory在 从句中作状语:Color TV sets are made in the factory.) 二、关系副词引导的定语从句
  1.关系副词when,where,why在定语从句中分别表示时间、地点或 原因。关系副词when在从句中充当时间状语,where充当地点状语, why充当原因状语。当先行词在定语从句中作状语时,引导词要用关 系副词。 I will never forget the day when I met Mr. Lin. This is the place where we lived for 5 years. I know the reason why he came late.

  2.关系副词常可换成“介词+关系代词”。when可换成on/in/by which 等,where可换成at/in/from which等,why换成for which。 This is the factory where I paid a visit the other day. This is the factory to which I paid a visit the other day. This is the factory that/which I visited the other day.
  3.that有时可以代替关系副词引导定语从句,此时that可以省去,不过 这是一种非正式用法。 It happened on the day (that/when) I was born.
  4.way后面的定语从句不能用how引导。如way在从句中作状语,应用in which或that引导,甚至还可省略引导词;如作主语或宾语应用that或 which引导。 I don’t like the way (in which/that) he talks. The way that/which he thought of to solve the problem might be helpful.

  5.from where为“介词+关系副词”结构,它也可以引导定语从句。 Tom hid himself behind the door,from where he could hear the steps of his mother clearly.
  6.as引导的定语从句 as有“正如,就像”之意,可引导非限制性定语从句,从句可位于主句 的前面、中间或后面;但which引导的非限制性定语从句一般只能放在 主句之后。 As had been expected,the England team won the football match. The result of the experiment was very good,which we hadn’t expected.
  7.非限制性定语从句与并列句的识别 非限制性定语从句与主句之间要用“逗号”分隔,并且不能加入and, but,so等连接词。并列句一般由and,but,so等词连接,或中间用 “分号”隔开。
He paid the boy ?10 for washing the windows,most of which hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. He paid the boy ?10 for washing the windows,and most of them hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. He paid the boy ?10 for washing the windows;most of them hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.
  8.定语从句与同位语从句的区别 同位语从句是位于名词answer,belief,doubt,decision,explanation, fact,hope,idea,information,news,order,problem,promise,truth 等后的句子,并对这些名词进行补充说明或解释;从句一般是一个完整 的句子,引导词that只起引导作用,不作句子成分,且that不可省略; 同位语从句不可用which引导。而定语从句通常是一个不完整的句子, 缺少主语或宾语等。
The fact that she hasn’t known the result of the examination is clear. The fact (that/which) she told me yesterday is very important. 过关落实
  1.Some pre-school children go to a day care center, they learn simple games and songs. A.then B.there C.while D.where 解析:where引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作地点状语。 where 答案:D
  2.He was educated at the local high school, he went on to Beijing University. A.after which B.after that C.in which D.in that 解析:after which引导定语从句,which指上面的句子He was educated at the local high school,表示“在当地高中受教育后上了北京大学”。 答案:A

  3.Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity sight matters more than hearing. A.when B.whose C.which D.where
解析:先行词是activity,关系词在从句中作地点状语,表示“在这 种活动中”,故选where。 答案:D
  4.?Where did you get to know her? ?It was on the farm we worked. A.that B.there C.which D.where
解析:where引导定语从句修饰the farm,在从句中作地点状语。 答案:D

  5.The book was written in 19
  46, the education system has witnessed great changes. A.when B.during which C.since then D.since when 解析:1946是先行词,when引导定语从句,由句意可知,关系词前 应加since,译为“自从那时……”。 答案:D
  6.By serving others,a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself, can be very eye-opening and rewarding. A.who 答案:B
  7.I was given three books on cooking,the first I really enjoyed. A.of that B.of which C.that D.which 解析:of which指of the three books on cooking;of结构提前,指物时 关系代词用which。 答案:B B.which C.what D.that 解析:which引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作主语。

  8.The Beatles, many of you are old enough to remember,came from Liverpool. A.what 答案:D
  9.We saw several natives advancing towards our party,and one of them came up to us, we gave some bells and glasses. A.to which 答案:B
  10.I saw a woman running toward me in the dark.Before I could recognize who she was,she had run back in the direction she had come. A.of which B.by which C.in which D.from which 解析:“从哪个方向来”为come from the direction,变为定语从句时 from提前,用which引导定语从句。 答案:D B.to whom C.with whom D.with which 解析:当介词结构(to)提前,指人时,关系代词用whom。 B.that C.how D.as 解析:as引导非限制性定语从句。

  11.It is far better for one to drink milk, one gets healthful nutrients, than to drink coffee, contains no nutrients at all. A.what;what C.from which;which B.where;as D.in which;what
解析:根据句意“人们从牛奶中得到有益健康的营养成分”可知, 第一个空应填from which;两个从句都是非限制性定语从句,指物 时,关系代词用which,故选C项。 答案:C
  12.Last October China launched its second manned spaceship ShenzhouⅥ, two Chinese astronauts traveled in space for five days. A.in which B.at which C.by which D.from which 解析:先行词为Shenzhou Ⅵ,定语从句表示“两名宇航员来此飞 船……”,故用in which。 答案:A

  13.?The authors of computer viruses are geniuses. ?I agree.They can apply their wisdom to other net technology human beings can benefit. A.in which B.through which C.on which D.from which 解析:benefit from,从……中获益,获得好处;from提前且定语 从句先行词为物时,用which。 答案:D
  14.Today’s Sichuan has become a representative of the west development,a place hopes and opportunities have replaced poverty and backwardness. A.which B.that C.where D.there
解析:where引导定语从句,且在句中作地点状语。 答案:C

  15.Their goods are exchanged for such machinery and equipment we need to buy abroad. A.that B.what C.as D.which
解析:such...as...意思是“像……这样的”,as作关系代词, 引导定语从句,as在定语从句中作need的宾语;而such...that... 中的that引导结果状语从句只起引导作用,不在句子中作成分。 答案:C
 

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