名词性从句
一、主语从句 主语从句在复合句中作主句的主语,引导主语从句的词有that, whether,who,what,which,whoever,whatever,whichever, when,where,why,how等。 That she was chosen made us very happy. What caused the accident is a complete mystery. Whoever comes to the party will receive a present. 【注】 有时为了使句子结构平衡,避免“头重脚轻”,常用it
作形式主语,而把从句放在后面。 It depends on the climate whether they are going shopping today.
二、表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作主句的表语,引导表语从句的词有that, whether,who,what,which,whoever,whatever,whichever, when,where,why,how,because等。 The reason is that you don’t trust her. This is where I disagree. 这一点是我所不同意的。 三、宾语从句 宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导宾语从句的词有that, whether,if,who,what,which,whoever,whatever, whichever,when,where,why,how等。宾语从句一般放在动词、 介词或形容词后。 She explained that she was late because of the heavy traffic.
【注】
①有时要用it作形式宾语,而把宾语从句放在句子的后面。
He has made it clear that he will not give in. ②如do you think/believe/suppose/expect/imagine后接特殊疑问词引导 的宾语从句,疑问词要放在句首。 What do you think is going on outside? ③I/We (don’t) think/believe/suppose/expect/imagine后接宾语从句时, 反义疑问句要与从句中的主语和谓语保持一致。 I don’t suppose he cares,does he? ④在宾语从句中,引导词whether和if基本一样,但介词后的宾语从 句多用whether。 It all depends upon whether we can get their cooperation.
⑤动词doubt如用于肯定句,其后的宾语从句常用if/whether引 导,如用于否定句或疑问句,则宾语从句用that引导。 I doubt if/whether our football team will win the match. I don’t doubt that I can defeat him in the contest. 四、同位语从句 在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语 从句一般用that,whether,who,which,what,where, when,why,how等词引导,常放在fact,news,idea, truth,hope,problem,information等名词后面,用以说明 该名词的具体内容。 The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school.
五、名词性从句的难点
  1.引导词that与what的区别 what既有引导主语从句的作用,同时又在从句中作句子成分(主语、 宾语、表语等),这时what相当于all that/everything that等,常译成 “所……的(东西、事情、话等)”;而that只起连接作用,本身无 实际意义,在从句中也不充当任何句子成分,但that引导的主语从 句放在句首时,不能省略that。 What we can’t get seems better than what we have. That a new teacher will come to teach us geography is true.
  2.引导词if和whether的区别 if和whether引导动词后面的宾语从句时一般可通用,但介词后的 宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句不能用if引导。
I don’t care if/whether he will come to my party. Whether she will go home or not is unknown. The question is whether we can collect enough money.
  3.引导词who与whoever的区别 whoever引导名词性从句时,相当于anyone who或those who,它既是 从句的主语,又是主句的主语。而who只作从句的主语,它引导的从 句才是主句的主语。 Whoever has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. Who will be elected president doesn’t make much difference to me.
  4.引导词what与whatever的区别 whatever引导名词性从句时,与what差不多,只是语气上更强些,有 “任何一切……”之意。 It is generally considered unwise to give a child whatever he or she wants. This is exactly what I want.

  5.同位语从句与定语从句的区别 同位语从句用于解释前面名词的内容,从句本身是一个非常完整 的句子,所以其前的名词在同位语从句中不作任何成分;定语从 句对其前的名词加以限制和修饰,从句本身不够完整,因此其前 的名词在定语从句中通常作主语、宾语或表语等成分。 I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich. The mother made a promise that pleased all her children.
  6.whoever与no matter who;whatever与no matter what whoever和whatever既可以引导名词性从句,也可引导让步状语从 句;no matter who和no matter what只引导让步状语从句。 Whatever(=No matter what) you may think,I’m going ahead with my plans. Take whatever you need and leave me alone.

  7.名词性从句的语序 名词性从句一律用陈述语序。 No one will be sure what man will look like in a million years. 没人知道百万年后人会是什么样子。
  8.名词性从句中的语气 (
  1)在It is necessary/natural/important/strange...+that从句中,从句中的谓 语动词用“should+原形动词”表虚拟语气,且should可省略。 It is necessary that the problem should be settled at once. (
  2)表示“建议、命令、要求”意义的动词,后接that从句时,从句中的 谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即“should+原形动词”,且should可省略。 Bob’s doctor suggests that he(should) rest for a few days.
(
  3)表示“建议、要求、命令、想法”意义的名词,后接that从 句时,从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气:“should+动词原 形”,should可以省略。这类名词有:advice,agreement, command,decision,demand, determination,order, preference,proposal,request,requirement等。 This is our only request that this (should) be settled as soon as possible. 同样,如主语是表示“建议、要求、命令、想法”意义的名 词,那么that引导的表语从句中也要用虚拟语气。 Her suggestion was that they (should) carry on their conversation in French.
过关落实
  1. matters most in learning English is enough practice. A.What B.Why C.Where D.Which 解析:what引导的句子作主语,在从句中what作主语。 答案:A
  2.Choosing the right dictionary depends on you want to use it for. A.what B.why C.how D.whether 解析:what引导宾语从句,在从句中作宾语。 答案:A
  3.The seaside here draws a lot of tourists every summer.Warm sunshine and soft sands make it is. A.what B.which C.how D.where 解析:what引导宾语从句,在从句中作表语。 答案:A

  4.You can only be sure of you have at present;you cannot be sure of something you might get in the future. A.that;what C.which;that B.what;/ D./;that
解析:what引导宾语从句;that引导定语从句,在从句中作宾语, 可省略。 答案:B
  5.Why not try your luck downtown,Bob? That’s the best jobs are. A.where B.what C.when D.why
解析:由“downtown”可知,应该使用表地点的引导词“where”。 答案:A

  6.Having checked the doors were closed,and all the lights were off,the boy opened the door to his bedroom. A.why B.that C.when D.where 解析:and连接两个宾语从句,第二个宾语从句的引导词 that不能省略。 答案:B
  7.The traditional view is we sleep because our brain is “programmed” to make us do so. A.when B.why C.whether D.that
解析:that引导表语从句,不做任何句子成分,但一般不 能省略。 答案:D

  8.?It’s thirty years since we last met. ?But I still remember the story,believe it or not, we got lost on a rainy night. A.which B.that C.what D.when
解析:此处that引导的句子作the story的同位语从句。 答案:B
  9. team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. A.No matter what C.Whatever B.No matter which D.Whichever
解析:whichever引导的句子在句中作主语,不能用no matter which 代替,因为后者只能引导让步状语从句。 答案:D

  10.Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A.why B.that C.where D.because
解析:此处that引导的句子作his reason 的同位语。 答案:B
  11. different life is today from it used to be ten years ago! A.How;what B.What;what C.How;that D.What;that 解析:how与形容词different 构成感叹句;what it used to be...作介 词from的宾语。 答案:A

  12.?Do you think it a must for me to try to do everything for my children? ?No,that’s you are mistaken;they should do something on their own. A.where B.when C.so D.how
解析:“那就是你错的地方”,where 引导表语从句。 答案:A
  13.I was shocked by the news,which made me realize terrible problems we would face. A.how B.which C.what D.that
解析:what terrible problems we would face作realize的宾语从句, what在从句中作face的宾语。 答案:C

  14.I was close to being killed the other day.A car passed me at I thought was a dangerous speed. A.as B.which C.what D.that
解析:what I thought was a dangerous speed作at的宾语,I thought 是插入语,what在句中作主语。 答案:C
  15.I am lucky the thing I enjoy doing more is I’ve ended up doing. A.what;what B.that;what C.what;that D.that;that
解析:that在状语从句中只起连接作用,不能作成分;what在从 句中作end up doing的宾语。此句要注意分析句子成分,明确that 在名词性从句和定语从句中所起的作用是不同的。 答案:B
 

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