2011 届全国硕士研究生入学统一考试 英语强化阶段测试题 1
姓名: 180 考试时间:180 分钟 100 满分:100 分
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Culture itself must be transmitted, and the most effective way is through the family. Parents teach their children the ideas and traditions they the 2 hunting for food, 3 1 from their own parents. For this reason became increasingly important; the practical applications of cultural tradition, such as children and tending the sick, may have been the obvious methods to use 4 through
when more than one family came together in a joint activity. Families provide friends, people who can be trusted, and trust can be act 7 5 intermarriage. Thus the whole societies come to be formed, in which the relationships between kin guidelines for daily behavior and establish important social values. Sometimes 6 into laws. The original reasons may be lost, but a process is 8 its members’ behavior is controlled for the from generation to generation, humans have a 11 account of past wisdom we can look into 12 . The fact that we make 14 13 us clearly from other traditional ways even become benefit of all 9
. The society survives where others fail Furthermore, in cultural traditions 10
laws, customs, and traditional beliefs.
kind of cultural capital on which to draw. By
the future and plan for events that are not always animals. It indicates cultural factors at work shellfish open with rocks, but it will not 17 16 the power of the human brain not only to 15 18 19
repeatedly to a standard pattern, and use them to make other tools,
instinct. A sea otter may learn to break the outside world, to see and react to it, a world unseen and unknown, and to 20 our own world. [D] obtained [D] school [D] bringing [D] increased [D] like [D] centralized [D] reversed [D] because [D] from [D] delivered
to change an unsatisfactory stone. The difference
but also to conceive of what it might be. That is?to foresee possibilities within it. Imagination enables us to
  1. [A] acquired
  2. [A] family
  3. [A] educating
  4. [A] weakened
  5. [A] as
  6. [A] civilized
  7. [A] recorded
  8. [A] but
  9. [A] for
  10. [A] passed [B] learned [B] society [B] rearing [B] supported [B] from [B] formalized [B] found [B] so [B] by [B] come
[C] procured [C] parents [C] training [C] reinforced [C] with [C] categorized [C] established [C] though [C] in [C] moved
1

  11. [A] making
  12. [A] convenient
  13. [A] tools
  14. [A] tells
  15. [A] but
  16. [A] attempt
  17. [A] holds up
  18. [A] perceive
  19. [A] assume
  20. [A] make
[B] giving [B] possible [B] fires [B] differs [B] besides [B] experiment [B] lies in [B] recognize [B] dream [B] create
[C] taking [C] available [C] food [C] distinguishes [C] than [C] strive [C] rests with [C] sense [C] imagine [C] invent
[D] keeping [D] predictable [D] clothes [D] identifies [D] beyond [D] struggle [D] contributes to [D] observe [D] guess [D] design
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Text 1 Massive changes in all of the world’s deeply cherished sporting habits are underway. Whether it’s one of London’s parks full of people playing softball, and Russians taking up rugby, or the Superbowl rivaling the British Football Cup Final as a televised spectator event in Britain, the patterns of players and spectators are changing beyond recognition. We are witnessing a globalization of our sporting culture. That annual bicycle race, the Tour de France, much loved by the French is a good case in point. Just a few years back it was a strictly continental affair with France, Belgium and Holland, Spain and Italy taking part. But in recent years it has been dominated by Colombian climbers, and American and Irish riders. The people who really matter welcome the shift toward globalization. Peugeot, Michelin and Panasonic are multi-national corporations that want worldwide returns for the millions they invest in teams. So it does them literally a world of good to see this unofficial world championship become just that. This is undoubtedly an economic-based revolution we are witnessing here, one made possible by communications technology, but made to happen because of marketing considerations. Sell the game and you can sell Coca Cola or Budweiser as well. The skillful way in which American football has been sold to Europe is a good example of how all sports will develop. The aim of course is not really to spread the sport for its own sake, but to increase the number of people interested in the major money-making events. The economics of the Superbowl are already astronomical. With seats at US$125, gate receipts alone were a staggering $10 000 0
  00.The most important statistic of the day, however, was the $ 100 000 000 in TV advertising fees. Imagine how much that becomes when the eyes of the world are watching. So it came as a terrible shock, but not really as a surprise, to learn that some people are now suggesting that soccer change from being a game of two 45-minute halves, to one of four
2
25-minute quarters. The idea is unashamedly to capture more advertising revenue, without giving any thought for the integrity of a sport which relies for its essence on the flowing nature of the action. Moreover, as sports expand into world markets, and as our choice of sports as consumers also grows, so we will demand to see them played at a higher and higher level. In boxing we have already seen numerous, dubious world title categories because people will not pay to see anything less than a “World Title” fight, and this means that the title fights have to be held in different countries around the world!
  21. Globalization of sporting culture means that [A] more people are taking up sports. [B] traditional sports are getting popular. [C] many local sports are becoming international. [D] foreigners are more interested in local sports.
  22. Which of the following is NOT related to the massive changes? [A] Good economic returns. [C] Communications technology [A] commercialization. [C] speculation. 25-minute quarters? [A] Favorable. [C] Reserved. [B] Unclear. [D] Critical. [B] Revival of traditional games. [D] Marketing strategies. [B] popularization. [D] standardization.

  23. As is used in the passage, “globalization” comes closest in meaning to

  24. What is the author’s attitude towards the suggestion to change soccer into one of four

  25. People want to see higher-level sports competitions mainly because [A] they become more professional than ever. [B] they regard sports as consumer goods. [C] there exist few world-class championships. [D] sports events are exciting and stimulating. Text 2 The promise of finding long-term technological solutions to the problem of world food shortages seems difficult to fulfill. Many innovations that were once heavily supported and publicized, such as fish-protein concentrate and protein from algae grown on petroleum substrates, have since fallen by the wayside. The proposals themselves were technically feasible, but they proved to be economically unviable (not able to succeed) and to yield food products culturally unacceptable to their consumers. One characteristic common to unsuccessful food innovations has been that, even with extensive government support, they often have not been technologically adapted or culturally acceptable to the people for whom they had been developed. A successful new technology, therefore, must fit the entire sociocultural system in which it is to find a place. Security of crop
3
yield, practicality of storage, and costs are much significant than had previously been realized by the advocates of new technologies. The adoption of new food technologies depends on more than these technical and cultural considerations; economic factors and governmental policies also strongly influence the ultimate success of any innovation. Economists in the Anglo-American tradition have taken the lead in investigating the economics of technological innovation. Although they exaggerate in claiming that profitability is the key factor guiding technical change?they completely disregard the substantial effects of culture?they are correct in stressing the importance of profits. Most technological innovations in agriculture can be fully used only by large landowners and are only adopted if these profit-oriented business people believe that the innovation will increase their incomes. Thus, innovations that carry high rewards for big agribusiness groups will be adopted even if they harm segments of the population and reduce the availability of food in a country. Further, should a new technology promise to alter substantially the profits and losses associated with any production system, those with economic power will strive to maintain and improve their own position. Since large segments of the populations of many developing countries are close to the subsistence (ability to live) margin and essentially powerless, they tend to be the losers in this system unless they are aided by a government policy that takes into account the needs of all sectors of the economy. Therefore, although technical advances in food production and processing will perhaps be needed to ensure food availability, meeting food needs will depend much more on equalizing economic power among the various segments of the populations within the developing countries themselves.
  26. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph? [A] A suggestion is made and arguments in its favor are provided. [B] A criticism is imposed and an alternative proposal is suggested. [C] An example is analyzed and general conclusions are derived from it. [D] A generalization is advanced and supporting evidence is provided.
  27. The author suggests that, in most emerging countries, extensive government intervention accompanying the introduction of a food innovation will [A] usually be sufficient to guarantee the financial success of the innovation. [B] be necessary to ensure that the benefits of the innovation will be spread throughout the society. [C] normally occur only when the innovation favors large landowners. [D] generally cost the country more than will be earned by the innovation.
  28. “publicized” (Line 3, Para.
  1) is meant [A] given publicity. [B] published. [C] owned by people. [D] public.

  29. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree? [A] The introduction of technological innovations to reap profits might alleviate food shortages to some degree, but any permanent solution can come only from effective governmental intervention in the socioeconomic system. [B] Innovations in agricultural technology will be of little help, and perhaps even harmful, in
4
combating food shortages, no matter how well designed they are to suit local circumstances. [C] Long-lasting solutions will not be found until large landowners adopt improvements that will make production more efficient and thus more profitable. [D] In order to achieve a meaningful solution to the problem of food shortage, the tastes of the general population must be educated to accept the new food products of modern agricultural technology.
  30. The primary purpose of the passage is to discuss [A] means of assessing the extent of the world food shortage. [B] cost of introducing a new food technology into a developing country. [C] difficulties of applying technological solutions to the problem of food shortages. [D] nature of the new technological innovations in the area of food production. Text 3 It is a favorite pastime of older people to lament the defects of the young. Every generation seems to be convinced that in its day, standards were higher, schools were tougher and kids were smarter. But if I.Q. scores are any measure, and even their critics agree they measure something, people are getting smarter. Researchers who study intelligence say scores around the world have been increasing so fast that a high proportion of people regarded as normal at the turn of the century would be considered way below average by today’s tests. Psychologists offer a variety of possible explanations for the increase, including better nutrition, urbanization, more experience with test taking, and smaller families. Some even say that television and video games have made children’s brains more agile. But no explanation is without its critics, and no one can say with certainty what effects, if any, the change is having on how people lead their daily lives. It is all the more mysterious because it seems to be happening in the absence of a simultaneous increase in scores on achievement tests. One explanation for the rise is ruled out: genetics. Because the increase has taken place in a relatively short period of time, it cannot be due to genetic factors. The worldwide pattern of rising scores in industrialized nations was discovered by Dr. James R. Flynn, now a professor at the University of Otago, New Zealand. He began looking into the subject in the 1980’s in an effort to rebut Dr. Arthur Jensen, the professor from the UC Berkeley who argued that even if the environments of blacks and whites were equalized, the 15-point gap in I
 

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