知识创造价值 学习成就未来
考研英语长难句突破讲义
适用对象:考研学子,四级,六级英语学习或相当者。 课程目的:打破英语阅读学习的幻觉,真正获得一扇通向别样美丽世界的窗 户,人生从此再无长难句。为英语写作夯实基础。 课程安排:方法论讲解;难句解析;考试实战演练
第一部分 方法论讲解
? 引子 我们为什么要精读句子 ? u 自由笔记区
? 阅读的实际过程是什么
? 阅读在句子层面的障碍
?
简单句的障碍来源
n u u
? 简单句的障碍识别及处理方法 定语 前置定语 后置定语
n. +
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来 u 定语从句(不属于简单句范畴)
n
同位语 普通同位语
同位语从句
n
插入语
n
状语

  1:Using techniques first developed for the offshore oil and gas industry, the DSDP’s drill ship, the Glomar Challenger, was able to maintain a steady position on the ocean’s surface and drill in very deep waters, extracting samples of sediments and rock from the ocean floor.
例 2 : A few art collectors James Bowdoin Ⅲ of Boston, William Byrd of Virginian, and the Aliens And Hamilton of Philadelphia introduced European art traditions to those colonists privileged to visit their galleries, especially aspiring artists, and established in their respective communities the idea of the value art and the need for institutions devoted to its encouragement.
?
非简单句的障碍来源
n u u
? 非简单句的障碍解决方案 关联词和主句专一原则 关联词
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来 主句专一原则 句子之间的关联方式
  1.并列 并列联词的用法
? u l
u l

  2.嵌套 常见的复杂句形式
? u
层次化句子阅读方法
  1.层次化结构的表示形式
u

  2.括号匹配法 ? 画左括号的条件
? 画右括号的条件
u

  3:The history of clinical nutrition or the study of the relationship between health and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances, can be divided into four distinct eras: the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early twentieth century when it was recognized for the first time that food contained constituents that were essential for human function and that different foods provided different amounts of these essential agents. 例
  4:The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that reconstruction had to be undertaken also
笔记区
小结区 in the North, though less spectacularly. 例
  5:The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteen-century tradition in which the making of a clay model was considered the creative act and the work was then turned over to studio assistants to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble.
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来 l
  3.完整信息链法 规则描述: 笔记区 例
  1.The impressive gain in output stemmed primarily from the way in which workers made goods, since the 1790's, and North American entrepreneurs?even without technological improvements?had broadened the scope of the outwork system that made manufacturing more efficient by distributing materials to a succession of workers who each performed a single step of the production process. 例
  2. Tracking whales is but one example of an exciting new world just opening to civilian scientists after the cold war as the Navy starts to share and partly uncover its global network of underwater listening system built over the decades to track the ships of potential enemies.

  3. The fact that artisans, who were looked on as mechanics or
skilled workers in the eighteenth century, are frequently considered artists today is directly attributable to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the nineteenth century. 例
  4:Anyone who has handled a fossilized bone knows that it is usually not exactly like its modern counterpart, the most obvious different being that it is often much heavier.
? n
倒装句的分析方法
  1.部分倒装的处理方法
n u u

  2.完全倒装的处理方法
  2.1 完全倒装的存在环境
  2.2 能够在句子中充当主语和表语的成份
u
  2.3 完全倒装的判断流程
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来 例 1 : Herein lay the beginning of what ultimately turned from ignorance to denial of the value of nutritional therapies in medicine. 例
  2:Surrounding the column are three sepals and three petals, sometimes easily recognizable as such, often distorted into gorgeous, weird, but always functional shapes. 例
  3:With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it, young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. 例
  4:Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War is the country’s impressive population growth. 例
  5:Among the species of seabirds that use the windswept cliffs of the Atlantic coast of Canada in the summer to mate, lay eggs, and rear their young are common murres, Atlantic puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, and northern gannets. 例
  6:Most important, perhaps, was that they had all maintained with a certain fidelity a manner of technique and composition consistent with those of America ’ s first popular landscape l artist, Thomas Cole, who built a career painting the Catskill Mountain scenery bordering the Hudson River. 例
  7:With the turn-of-century Crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration, such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new urge for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium.
笔记区
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来 例
  8:Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. 例 9 : Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem, to the health of the Earth and human wellbeing. 例
  10:Matching the influx of foreign immigrants into the larger cities of the United States during the late nineteenth century was a domestic migration from town and farm to city, within the United States. 例 11 : Indeed, had it not been for the superb preservation of these fossils, they might well have been classified as dinosaurs. 笔记区
? n n
强调句的分析方法
  1.强调句的构成
  2.强调句的处理方法

  1:It was just a decade before this that many drug companies had found their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins and literature extolling the virtue of supplementation for a variety of health-related conditions. 例
  2:It was she, a Baltimore printer, who published the first official copies of the Declaration, the first copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded the support of all thirteen colonies. 例
  3:It was in the cities that the elements that can be associated with modern capitalism first appeared? the use of money and commercial paper in place of barter, open competition in place of social deference and hierarchy, with an attendant rise in social disorder, and the appearance of factories using coal or water power in place of independent craftspeople working with hand tools.
笔记区
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来 小结区
  1、对句子的完整处理流程

  2、强调:阅读句子时要对关联词和谓语动词敏感。
第二部分 难句解析
一、隔离结构:
1 . This success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined, led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one.
  2.It is not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.
  3.Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip. 4 . During the past generation, the American middle-class family that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure has been transformed by economic risk and new realities.
  5.Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as "steering the economy to a soft landing" of "a touch on the brakes" , makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth.
  6.According to their latest paper published in Nature, the biomass of large predators (animals that kill and eat other animals) in a new fishery is reduced on average by 80% within 15 years of the start of exploitation.

  7.Some individuals would therefore not have been caught, since no baited hooks would have been available to trap them, leading to an underestimate of fish stocks in the past.
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来
  8.On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted--suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying. 9 . The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom.
  10.The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $ 22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only
  0.2
  50.5% of GDP. 11 . It identifies the under treatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end--of--life care.
  12.The notion that learning should have in it an element of inspired play would seem to the greater part of the academic establishment merely silly, but that is nonetheless the case. 13 . The findings add weight to the theory that large areas of the Amazon have recovered so well from past periods of agricultural use that the regrowth has been mistaken by generations of biologists for “virgin” forest. 14 . An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students" career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform.
二、并列结构:

  1.Their methods do not attempt to estimate the actual biomass (the amount of living biological matter) of fish species in particular parts of the ocean, but rather changes in that biomass over time.
  2.Many things make people think artists are weird and the weirdest may be this: artists' only job is to explore emotions, and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad. 3 . And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better.

  4.But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least" a few decisions for them- selves-goals that pose a real challenge.
  5.But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98
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知识创造价值 学习成就未来 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. 6 . A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. 8 . I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&M wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers" demands. 9 . The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom.
  10.Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the j
 

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