2011 考研英语模拟试题 12 篇(附全文翻译 附全文翻译) 附全文翻译
SectionⅠUse of English
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)from each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1.(10 points) 一、美陪审团制度
As former colonists of Great Britain,the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a“common law” ,or law made by courts__1__a monarch or other central governmental__2__like a legislature. The jury, a__3__of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, an__4__ part is of our common-law system.
Use of juries to decide cases is a__5__feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States.__6__the centuries,many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer and more just result__7__would be obtained using a judge__8__,as many countries do.__9__a jury decides cases after“__10__” ,or discussions among a group of people,the jury‘s decision is likely to have the__11__ from many different people from different backgrounds,who must as a group decide what is right.
Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide__12__ among__13__ citizens, criminal cases, and which decide cases brought by the government __14__ that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and__15__. Jurors,consisting of __16__ numbers,are called for each case requiring a jury.
The judge__17__to the case__18__the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states, __19__jurors are questioned by the judge;in others , they are questioned by the lawyers representing the__20__under rules dictated by state law.

  1. [A] other than [B] rather than [C] more than [D] or rather

  2. [A] agency [B] organization [C] institution [D] authority

  3. [A] panel [B] crew [C] band [D] flock

  4. [A] innate [B] intact [C] integral [D] integrated

  5. [A]discriminating[B] distinguishing [C] determining [D] diminishing

  6. [A] in [B] by [C] after [D] over

  7. [A] that [B] which [C] than [D] as

  8. [A] alike [B] alone [C] altogether [D] apart

  9. [A] Although [B] Because [C] If [D] While

  10.[A] deliberations [B] meditations [C] reflections [D] speculations

  11.[A] outline [B] outcome [C] input [D] intake

  12.[A] arguments [B] controversies [C] disputes [D] hostilities

  13.[A] fellow [B] individual [C] personal [D] private

  14.[A] asserting [B] alleging [C] maintaining [D] testifying

  15.[A] assembled [B] evoked [C] rallied [D] summoned

  16.[A] set [B] exact [C] given [D] placed

  17.[A] allocated [B] allotted [C] appointed [D] assigned

  18.[A] administers [B] manages [C] oversees [D] presides

  19.[A] inspective [B] irrespective [C] perspective [D] prospective

  20.[A] bodies [B] parties [C] sides [D] units 答案

  1. B
  2. D
  3. A
  4. C
  5. B
  6. D
  7.C
  8.B
  9. B
  10. A

  11. C
  12. C
  13.D
  14.B
  15. D
  16. A
  17. D
  18. C
  19. D
  20. B 总体分析 本文介绍了美国的陪审团制度。第一段指出,陪审团是美国共同法系统的基本组成部分。第二段分析了 使用陪审团的原因。第三和四段分别介绍了陪审团的类型和选举程序。 全文翻译 美国的建国之父们作为大英帝国的前殖民者沿袭了其法律系统。我们有“共同法” ,即由法庭而非君主或 其他像立法机关这样的中央政府权利机关制定的法律。陪审团由一群选来裁决案件的普通公民组成,是我 们共同法系统基本的组成部分。 使用陪审团裁决案件是美国法律系统的一个显著特征。 在世界上很少有其他国家和美国一样使用陪审团。
几个世纪以来,许多人已经相信在大多数情况下陪审团比许多国家那样单独使用一位法官达成的结果更公 平、公正。因为陪审团裁决案件是在一群人“审议”或讨论后,因此他们的决定可能受到不同背景的不同 人的影响,这些人必须作为一个团体来决定什么是正确的。 陪审团既被用在裁决普通公民之间纠纷的民事案件中,也用在裁决政府提出讼诉声称个人犯罪的刑事案 件中。陪审团成员从美国公民中选出并被传唤。由固定人数组成的陪审团在每一个需要陪审团的案件中都 会被召唤。 被指派负责案件的法官监督陪审团成员的选举。在一些州,未来的陪审团成员由法官询问,而在另一些 州,他们遵照州法律规定的法规接受代表各方当事人的律师的询问。 二、英国车速监控系统
The Treasury could pocket 20 million a year in extra fines once the country‘s speed camera network is expanded. Motoring organizations warned that the __1__could become a poll tax on wheels’ ,__2__huge number of drivers. There could be many more incidents of vandalism __3__cameras.The warnings came__4__a Daily Mail survey found almost all the 23 police forces in England and Wales were either__5__to expansion plans or considering __6__.
Nationwide,the number of speeding tickets is expected to treble,__7__ 90 million a year.__8__the scheme, police keep some of the cash from fines to __9__the costs of fitting and maintaining extra cameras and__10__that existing ones always have film in them. The rest will go to the Treasury. Both Ministers and police insist the scheme is aimed__11__at making roads safer. They point to trials in eight areas which cut collisions by a quarter and deaths and serious injuries by __12__a half.
But motoring organizations fear cameras will be sited on relatively safe__13__fast stretches to catch as many drivers as possible. Some forces are also expected to__14__the“threshold”speeds at which cameras are__15__to the absolute legal minimum-15 mph in a 10 mph limit, 26 mph in a 20 mph zone. This could encourage drivers and to stare at their speedometers instead of concentrating on the road,and __16__to more accidents. Sue Nicholson, head of campaigns at the RAC,said, “We don‘t have a problem with speed cameras __17__. But we do have concerns about__18__they are sited. Police risk losing credibility __19__motorists if cameras are seen as revenue-raising __20__safety devices.”

  1. [A] promotions [B] punishments [C] penalties [D] payments

  2. [A] isolating [B] separating [C] alienating [D] detaching

  3. [A] towards [B] against [C] before [D] over

  4. [A] so [B] once [C] as [D] where

  5. [A] subjected [B] engaged [C] intended [D] committed

  6. [A] taking part [B] keeping silence [C] making exception [D] paying respect

  7. [A] financing [B] profiting [C] funding [D] netting

  8. [A] From [B] Under [C] On [D] With

  9. [A] hide [B] cover [C] conceal [D] veil

  10. [A] pledging [B] assuring [C] confirming [D] ensuring

  11. [A] essentially [B] strongly [C] wholeheartedly [D] purely

  12. [A] in all [B] fewer than [C] at most [D] up to

  13. [A] but [B] whereas [C] though [D] while

  14. [A] fit [B] put [C] set [D] fix

  15. [A] levered [B] geared [C] handled [D] triggered

  16. [A] lead [B] add [C] contribute [D] resort

  17. [A] any less [B] by itself [C] after all [D] as such

  18. [A] who [B] when [C] where [D] which

  19. [A] in [B] with [C] against [D] for

  20. [A] in spite of [B] far from [C] rather than [D] by means of 答案

  1. C
  2. C
  3. B
  4. C
  5. D
  6. A
  7. D
  8. B
  9.B
  10. D

  11. D
  12.D
  13. A
  14. C
  15. B
  16. A
  17. D
  18. C
  19.B
  20.C 总体分析 本文讲述了英国车速监控摄像体系扩张计划的内容及影响,着重阐述了这一计划的支持者(警察和财政部 门)和反对者(机动车管理机构)的观点。 全文翻译 一旦扩大车速监控摄像体系,这个国家财政部每年就能从罚款中额外增加 2000 万收入。机动车管理机构 警告说这种罚款可能变成对汽车征收的人头税,从而疏远很多驾驶者。也可能出现更多破坏摄像机的事件。
警告出现的同时, 《每日邮报》的调查发现英格兰和威尔士的 23 支警力几乎都有所行动,不是致力于部署 监控体系的扩张计划,就是在考虑加入其中。 预计(在实施监控系统后)全国范围内违章超速行驶的罚单数量会增加两倍,罚金数目一年达 9000 万。按 照计划,警察保留一部分罚金用以支付安装和维修新摄像机的费用,并且保证现有的摄像机中总是装有胶 卷。其余的罚金将上缴财政部。财政部长们和警察都坚持认为该计划的目的是提高公路的安全性。他们指 出八个试点地区撞车事故减少了四分之一,严重伤亡事故减少至一半。 但是机动车管理机构担心警察为了多开罚单会把摄像机装在相对安全但行车速度较快的直行道上,还会 为车速监控摄像机设置最低合法车速标准,如把正常的每小时 10 英里限速提高到每小时 15 英里,每小时 20 英里限速提高到每小时 26 英里。这样做会使司机盯着自己的里程计而不把精力集中到路面上,从而引 发更多的交通事故。英国皇家汽车俱乐部(RAC)活动负责人休。尼科尔森说, “严格上说,我们对车速监控 摄像机并无意见,我们担忧的是它们被安放的地点。如果把监控摄像机视为(政府)聚敛财政收入的手段而 不是安全设施,那么警察就可能丧失他们在驾驶者心目中的威信” 。 三、大众媒体
The mass media is a big part of our culture,yet it can also be a helper,adviser and teacher to our young generation. The mass media affects the lives of our young by acting as a(an)__1__for a number of institutions and social contacts. In this way,it__2__ a variety of functions in human life.
The time spent in front of the television screen is usually at the__3__ of leisure:there is less time for games, amusement and rest.__4__ by what is happening on the screen,children not only imitate what they see but directly__5__ themselves with different characters. Americans have been concerned about the__6__ of violence in the media and its__7__harm to children and adolescents for at least forty years. During this period,new media __8__, such as video games, cable television, music videos, the Internet. As they continue to gain popularity, and these media,__9__television,__10__public concern and research attention.
Another large societal concern on our young generation__11__by the media,is body image.__12__forces can influence body image positively or negatively.__13__one , societal and cultural norms and mass media marketing__14__our concepts of beauty. In the mass media,the images of__15__beauty fill magazines and newspapers,__16__from our televisions and entertain us__17__the movies. Even in advertising,the mass media__18__on accepted cultural values of thinness and fitness for commercial gain. Young adults are presented with a__19__defined standard of attractiveness,a(n)__20__that carries unrealistic physical expectations.

  1. [A] alternative [B] preference [C] substitute [D] representative

  2. [A] accomplishes[B] fulfills [C] provides [D] suffices

  3. [A] risk [B] mercy [C] height [D] expense

  4. [A] Absorbed [B] Attracted [C] Aroused [D] Addicted

  5. [A] identify [B] recognize [C] unify [D] equate

  6. [A] abundance [B] incidence [C] prevalence [D] reccurrence

  7. [A] disposed [B] hidden [C] implicit [D] potential

  8. [A] merged [B] emerged [C] immerged [D] submerged

  9. [A] apart from [B] much as [C] but for [D] along with

  10. [A] promote [B] propel [C] prompt [D] prosper

  11. [A] inspired [B] imposed [C] delivered [D] contributed

  12. [A] External [B] Exterior [C] Explicit [D] Exposed

  13. [A] As [B] At [C] For [D] In

  14. [A] mark [B] effect [C] impact [D] shock

  15. [A] generalized [B] regularized [C] standardized[D] categorized

  16. [A] boom [B] bottom [C] brim [D] beam

  17. [A] over [B] with [C] on [D] at

  18. [A] play [B] take [C] profit [D] resort

  19. [A] barely [B] carefully [C] narrowly [D] subjectively

  20. [A] ideal [B] image [C] stereotype [D] criterion 答案

  1. C
  2. B
  3. D
  4. B
  5. A
  6. C
  7. D
  8. B
  9.D
  10. C

  11. B
  12.A
  13. C
  14. C
  15. C
  16. A
  17. D
  18. A
  19.C
  20.A 总体分析 本文主要论述了大众媒介对青少年产生的影响。第一段指出,大众媒介可以替代社会机构和社会交往在 年轻人的生活中起着各种各样的作用。第二段指出,由于青少年模仿他们在电视中看到的乃至将其与现实 相混淆,人们一直担忧媒介对他们可能产生危害。第三段媒介对美的狭隘界定对青少年的不良影响。 全文翻译
大众媒体是我们文化的重要组成部分,但是它也可以成为年轻一代的助手、建议者和教师。大众媒介作 为许多机构和社会交往的替代品影响着年轻人的生活。通过这种方式,它在人们生活中起到了各种各样的 作用。 在电视屏幕前耗费的时间常常是以休闲为代价的,即有更少的时间用于游戏、娱乐和休息。由于被电视 屏幕上的东西吸引,孩子们不仅模仿他们看到的,而且还直接将自己视为电视中的各种不同的人物。美国 人对媒体中暴力的普及及其对孩子和青少年的潜在危害的担忧至少已经有四十年了。在这段时期里,新的 媒体,如:电视游戏、有线电视、音乐录像带以及网络出现了。由于这些媒体继续受到欢迎,它们连同
 

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