2011 年考研英语 一)试题 年考研英语(一 试题
Section I Use of English
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points)
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise preci ous to health.” But __1some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness Laughter does __2short-term changes in the functio n of the heart and its blood vessels, 3_ heart rate and oxygen consumption Bu t because hard laughter is difficult to __4__, a good laugh is unlikely to have __5_ __ benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does.
__6__, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter a pparently accomplishes the __7__, studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that l aughter__8 muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the lau gh dies down.
Such bodily reaction might conceivably help _9__the effects of psychological str ess. Anyway, the act of laughing probably does produce other types of 10 f eedback, that improve an individual’s emotional state. __11one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry 13they are s ad but they become sad when the tears begin to flow.
Although sadness also 14 tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow __15 muscular responses. In an experiment published in 1988,social psych ologist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to _ _16 a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile ? or with th eir lips, which would produce a(n) __17 expression. Those forced to exercise th eir enthusiastically to funny catoons than did those whose months were contracted in a frown, 19 that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around __20__ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.

  1.[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like

  2.[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce

  3.[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining

  4.[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe

  5.[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable

  6.[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief

  7.[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected

  8.[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes

  9.[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance

  10.[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal

  11.[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for

  12.[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at

  13.[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because

  14.[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses

  15.[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond

  16.[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold

  17.[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent

  18.[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted

  19.[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing

  20.[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40 points)
Text 1
The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcemen
t of his appointment in 20
  09. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say t he least. “Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic.
One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appoi ntment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable c onductor about him.” As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely t o have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise.
For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good on e. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchest ral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and down load still more recorded music from iTunes.
Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classic al instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater compa nies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicia ns of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often m uch higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “cons umed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical con cert.
One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music tha t is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely not ed: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of tur ning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization.” But what wil l be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relatio nship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.

  21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert’s appointment has
[A]incurred criticism.
[B]raised suspicion.
[C]received acclaim.
[D]aroused curiosity.

  22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is
[A]influential.
[B]modest.
[C]respectable.
[D]talented.

  23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers
[A]ignore the expenses of live performances.
[B]reject most kinds of recorded performances.
[C]exaggerate the variety of live performances.
[D]overestimate the value of live performances.

  24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?
[A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.
[B]They are easily accessible to the general public.
[C]They help improve the quality of music.
[D]They have only covered masterpieces.

  25. Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels
[A]doubtful.
[B]enthusiastic.
[C]confident.
[D]puzzled.
Text 2
When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explan ation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuse s, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks,
he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, w hich named him CEO and chairman on September
  29.
McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what ki nd of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn’t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon an d American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who do n’t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has se nior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations.
As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% fro m a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum R esearch. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders.
The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO c andidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Care y:”I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”
Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly. Ell en Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later.
Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. “The traditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are, but that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says on e headhunter. “The people who’ve been hurt the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.”

  26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as bein g
[A]arrogant.
[B]frank.
[C]self-centered.
[D]impulsive.

  27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives’ quitting may be spurred by
[A]their expectation of better financial status.
[B]their need to reflect on their private life.
[C]their strained relations with the boards.
[D]their pursuit of new career goals.

  28. The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph
  4) most probably means
[A]approved of.
[B]attended to.
[C]hunted for.
[D]guarded against.

  29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
[A]top performers used to cling to their posts.
[B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.
[C]top performers care more about reputations.
[D]it’s safer to stick to the traditional rules.

  30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?
[A]CEOs: Where to Go?
[B]CEOs: All the Way Up?
[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net
[D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers
Text 3
The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. N o longer. While traditional “paid” media ? such as television commercials and print advert isements ? still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “owned” media by sending e-m
ail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way con sumers now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.
Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. Fo r earned media , such marketers act as the initiator for users’ responses. But in some cas es, one marketer’s owned media become another marketer’s paid media ? for instance, wh en an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-co mmerce engines within that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infan cy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and wil l no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-a lone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives c ompanies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.
The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (an d more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consu mers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. S uch hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hosta ge to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a br and or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijac k media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them.
If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott produc ts, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company’s res
ponse may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier thi s year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the socia l-news site Digg.

  31.Consumers may create “earned” media when they are
[A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.
[B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.
[C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.
[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite product
 

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