2011 年考研英语阅读基础及长难句精讲
Part 1 难句的超级分析能力
原则一:拆分意思群体,迅速抓住主干. 难句之难在与如何花整为零,如何在复杂的结构中分析清楚主干和从句,如何拨开云雾见 光明.关键要抓住意思群体,比如一个谓语的成分多达十个单词,就不能一个一个单词翻译, 要把他们想成整体.定语从句很长,要抓关键的意思,不能眉毛和胡子一起抓.很多学生喜 欢逐字阅读,过于咬文嚼字,而忽视了句子的整体性.还有些同学碰到难句子就划黑色的圆 圈,结果到头来什么也看不出.不要拘泥于难词,因为很多难词并不是正确答案的所在. 原则二: 熟悉难句的类型以及特殊的分析技巧 难句有很多种多样,从句型上看有定语从句, 状语从句,名词性从句; 从短语类型上看,有 分词状语,动名词短语, 介词短语; 从成分的特殊位置看, 有倒装句, 插入语,省略情况,分 割结构.从语气看有虚拟语气, 建议语气等.对不同的难句采取专项突破,一定会起到事半 功倍的效果. 原则三:利用语法,不靠语法 即在考研中,考生永远也不需要再考场上分析一句话的语法成分,也不要想这句话有没 有语法错误,考生的唯一任务就是现场迅速的读懂文章.然而在初期可以少量的运用语法, 目的有二:一为初学者如果看不懂句子得结构,往往会感到心情沮丧,或大脑混乱,根本就 读不尽文章,因此引入语法能够给读者以信心;二为运用语法,可以了解文章的语法结构, 并最终完全熟悉各种类型的句子,达到一遍就可以读懂句子得效果. 英语基本的句型 (
  1)主谓结构(SV) All the folks in the lobby were deeply moved The existence of both racial and sexual discrimination in employment is well documented. (
  2)主系表(SVC) She is feeling depressed today. To be or not to be is a hard thing (
  3) 主谓宾(SVO) They are talking loudly about the political affairs. All parents have to solve the problems of freedom and discipline.
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Early upbringing in the home is affected both by the cultural pattern of th community and by the parents' capabilities. (
  4) 主谓直接宾语间接宾语(S-V-Od-Oi) He offered me a great hand The modern whte furniture and greater variety in character development. (
  5) 主谓宾语补语(SVOC) Tom made Jim cry loudly. They let him try a third time. We consider it a good opportunity to study abroad. We painted the roof red. They had the dishes prepared. (
  6) 主谓状 We should confront hardships fearlessly and strive to overcome them Part 2 各种从句的类型 一. 主语从句阅读
  1. That experience influences subsequent behavior is evidence of an obvious activity called rememebering.'
  2. That the seas are being overfished has been known for years. What researchers such as Ransom Myers have shown is just how fast things are going 二. 宾语从句阅读
  1. Cartwright believes that one can exercises conscious control over recurring bad dreams
  2. They don't know whether this decision comes out of convincing proof or whether it can be put into practice.
  3. Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace? 三.表语从句阅读
  1. I am not afraid of dying from a spiritual pont of view,but what I was afraid of is how I would die.
  2. One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the rises in the 1970s,it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand.
  3.One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature and so on. 四.同位语从句阅读
  1. In talking to some young scientists, you might gather the impression that they find the scientific method substitute for imaginative thought.
  2.Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. 五.定语从句阅读
  1. Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the company's private internet
  2.Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as necessary ingredient to a sustained boom.
  3.This is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in
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a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations. 六.副词性从句阅读状语从句
  1. 时间状语从句
  1. We can not do anything about it until we know the truth.
  2. Immediately he arrived, he started describing us what had happened
  3. The day he returned home, his grandpa was already dead. 注: 很多表示时间的名词词组和副词也可以引导时间状语从句, instantly, immediately, directly, the day, every time, the minute, the moment
  2.条件状语从句
  1.If only I had worked harder, I would finish the job.
  2.As long as you keep on trying, you will certainly succeed. 注: 很多词组也可以引导条件状语从句, Provided that, Given that, Supposing that, On condition that, In case that
  4. 原因状语从句
  1. Theory is valuable in that it can provide a direction for practice.
  2. Now that the weather has improved, let's go out for a picnic. 注: 很多词组也可以引导原因状语从句, now that, in that, considering that, on account of, owing to, due to, thanks to
  4.让步状语从句
  1. Tom always enjoys swimming, even though the weather is rough.
  2. Despite the existence of national differences, certain situations have a universal appeal.
  3. whatever he says, I do not believe in him. 注: 很多词组也可以引导让步状语从句 ,even if, as, no matter what, no matter how, despite, while,whatever, whenever, whoever, however.
  5.目的状语从句
  1. They climbed to the top of the mountain in order that they could get a bird's-eye view of the city.
  2. Take an umbrella in case it rains. 注: 很多词组也可以引导目的状语从句, so that, in order that, lest, in case that, for fear that.
  6.方式状语从句
  1. He made some changes as you had suggested.
  2. She was behaving as if she had not grown up. 注 onst: 很多词组也可以引导方式状语从句,as, as if, as though, the way, how.
从句综合阅读练习

  1. One sign that you are making progress in an art such as painting or photography is that you began to realize how much there is to learn.
  2. Perhaps it would be more correct to say that those who find satisfaction in construction find in it greater satisfaction than the lovers of destruction can find in destruction,forif once you have become filled with hate you will not easily derive from construction the pleasure which another man would derive from it.
  3. As far as the third factor is concerned,the history of science shows many instance
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  4.

  5.

  6.

  7.

  8.
in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful resistance to further investigation;in some cases centuries elapsed before this resistance was eventually broken down,as happened in cosmology,for example. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialitiesthose of love and of reasonare the aims of all social arrangement. Smart cards, which can carry as much as 80 times more information on them than conventional cards with magnetic strip, are already widely used in European countries where centralized banks can roll out new services on a nationwide basis. Thus, to rectifu the positions taken previously, where we contented ourselves with condemnations, in my delegation's opinion, we must find an overall solution which would come to grips with both the substance as well as the superficial aspects which, after all, serve only to compel us to keep this problem constantly on the Security Council's agendas. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation we have come to believe that nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask her questions bu way of appropriate observations and experiments, she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure. These new observational capabilities would result in simply a mass of details were it not for the fact that theoretical understanding has reached the stage at which it is becoming possible to indicate the kind of measurements required for reliable weather forecasting.
特殊结构的突破
一.倒装句子 (
  1).否定副词放句首要求倒装
  1. Less well known is the advantage that Adam has in life over Zysman.
  2. Americans no longer expect public figures to command the English language with skill and gifet. Nor do they aspire to such command themselves.
  3. No longer could I count on people to take precautions to deal with those serious problems. (
  2) 某些固定词组要求倒装
  1. Not only has the Government refused to consult with the people of Australia on this issue of decreasing the duty rates, they have also refused to consult with them on increasing the export and import between tow countries.
  2. So addicted to electronic games that our schools should control the time of surfing the internet for the children. (
  3) 某些语法要求倒装
  1. However, should policy measures be taken to boost economic growth and make the growth process more inclusive to the poor, the World Bank reckons that 500 million people could be brought out of extreme poverty by 20
  08.
  2. Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence
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of some respected ideas in elementary particle physics. (
  4)为了平衡句子关系要求倒装
  1.Coupled with the centralization of economic growth is the disapperance of the extended families in favor of isolated, two-generation households.
  2.Emerging from the 1980 census is the picture of a nation develoing more and more regional competition, as population growth in the Northeast reaches a standstill.
  3. Along with them goes social mobility, ambitions to rise in the urban world, a main factor in bringing down the births in Europe in the nineteenth century.
  4. Jack London poured into his writings all the pain of his life, the fierce hatred of the society that it had produced on him. 二.主语,宾语后置
  1.it is generally accepted that the experience if the child in his first years largely determines his character and later personality.
  2. Many cmmunities have a low literacy rate, making impossible handing out AIDS literature and expection people to read it.
  3. He says our doctors must make it clear that painful deaths without proper use of medicine are presumptively ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension.
  4.The court ordered new proceedings that were to include as a basic concern the preservation of natural beauty and national historical intersts
  5. I shall edfine him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic way about moral problems. 三.省略
  1. As families move away away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.
  2. If you are a man, you can point out that most poets and men of science are male; if you are a woman, you can retort that so are most criminals.]
  3. If this is so, the process may well begin, like most human behavior, in the homein those himes where a good meal has been replaced by something-to-eat-in-a-hurry. By something not very good to eat,prepared by a mother without very much to do, for a family that doesn't feel it amounts to much anyhow.
  4. It is easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-changing world. 四. 强调结构
  1.At Time Warner, however, such questions are simply the latest manifestation of the soul-searching that has involved the company ever since the company ever since the company was born in 19
  90.It is a self-examination that has involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line,
  2.Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.
  3. There is no doubt that it is the increasing number of applicants with university
5
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education at all points in the process of engaging staff that has led to the greater importance of the curriculum vitae. 五. 与than搭配的短语或结构
 

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