2011 考研英语(一)试题 http://wenku.baidu.com/view/d2a1ff0ff12d2af90242e6
  64.html Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious to health.” But ???some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical filness Laug short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to , a good laugh is unlikely to have benef way, say, walking or jogging does. , instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that laughter. muscles, Such bodily reaction might conceivably helpthe effects of psychological stress.Anyway,the act laughing probably does produce other types of feedback,that improve an individual’s emotional s one classical theory of emotion,our feelings are partially rooted physical reactions. It wa at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry they are sad but they become sad when te te to flow. Although sadness also tears,evidence suggests that emotions can flow muscular resp an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz.
  1.[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like
  2.[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce
  3.[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining
  4.[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe
  5.[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable
  6.[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief
  7.[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected
  8.[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes
  9.[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance
  10.[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal
  11.[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for
  12.[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at
  13.[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because
  14.[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses
  15.[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond
  16.[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold
  17.[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent
  18.[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted
  19.[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing
  20.[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely Section II Reading Comprehension
The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 20
  09. For the mo the response has been favorable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-s classical-music critic. One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is compara little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him. ” As a description of the next m director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, tha likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise. For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he p an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up m computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes. Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing th For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not on opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances o great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a tim place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a the institution of the traditional classical concert. One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet ava record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, ha described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibr organization.” But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship betwee America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.
  21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert’s appointment has [A]incurred criticism. [B]raised suspicion. [C]received acclaim. [D]aroused curiosity.
  22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is [A]influential. [B]modest. [C]respectable. [D]talented.
  23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers [A]ignore the expenses of live performances. [B]reject most kinds of recorded performances. [C]exaggerate the variety of live performances. [D]overestimate the value of live performances.

  25. Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels [A]doubtful. [B]enthusiastic. [C]confident. [D]puzzled. Text 2 When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surpri straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was le pursue my goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGe Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, named him CEO and chairman on September
  29. McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company h to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn’t alone. In r weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were lookin CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of le vague pronouncements cloud their reputations. As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jum without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound fo leaders. The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be p Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:”I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board ha instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”
Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tin
Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a C finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it mo
acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. “The traditional rule was it ’s safer to stay where you that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. “The people who’ve been hurt the worst are th who’ve stayed too long.”
  26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being [A]arrogant. [B]frank. [C]self-centered. [D]impulsive.
  27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives’ quitting may be spurred by [A]their expectation of better financial status. [B]their need to reflect on their private life.
[C]hunted for. [D]guarded against.
  29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that [A]top performers used to cling to their posts. [B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated. [C]top performers care more about reputations. [D]it’s safer to stick to the traditional rules.
  30. Which of the following is the best title for the text? [A]CEOs: Where to Go? [B]CEOs: All the Way Up? [C]Top Managers Jump without a Net [D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers Text 3 The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While tr “paid” media ? such as television commercials and print advertisements ? still play a major role, compan can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “owned” by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way cons now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media. Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media marketers act as the initiator for users’ responses. But in some cases, one marketer’s owned media becom another marketer’s paid media ? for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their con e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effective with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Joh example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even
competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem ob gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ market may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned. The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more divers communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions
quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned m asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative alle
about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack med apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them. If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the r
of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company’s response may not be sufficiently quick or tho and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from it
crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, whic included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg.
  31.Consumers may create “earned” media when they are [A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.
[B] random competition. [C] strong user traffic. [D] flexibility in organization.
  33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media [A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers. [B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing. [C] may be responsible for fiercer competition. [D] deserve all the negative comments about them.
  34. Toyota Motor’s experience is cited as an example of [A] responding effectively to hijacked media. [B] persuading customers into boycotting products. [C] cooperating with supportive consumers. [D] taking advantage of hijacked media.
  35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ? [A] Alternatives to conventional paid media. [B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media. [C] Dominance of hijacked media. [D] Popularity of owned media. Text 4 It’s no surprise that Jennifer Senior’s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Child Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter ? nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearin anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-te condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior wri
“the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and d The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-a
image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive ? and newly single ? mom S Bullock, as well as the usual “Jennifer Aniston is pregnant” news. Practically every week features at leas celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the n



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