2011 年职称英语阅读文章 阅读理解新增文章( 阅读理解新增文章(共 6 篇)
目录: 目录: 第二篇(C 级):World Crude Oil Production May Peak a Decade Earlier Than Some Predict 第六篇(C 级):Weaving with Light 第三十四篇(B 级):Batteries Built by Viruses 第三十八篇(B 级):Longer Lives for Wild Elephants 第四十五篇(A 级):Some People Do Not Taste Salt Like Others 第四十六篇(A 级):Marvelous Metamaterials 第二篇 World Crude Oil Production May Peak a Decade Earlier Than Some Predict In a finding that may speed efforts to conserve oil,scientists in Kuwait predict that world conventional crude oil production will peak in 20
  14.This prediction is almost a decade earlier than some other predictions. Their study is in ACS’Energy&Fuels
  1. Ibrahim Nashawi and colleagues point out that rapid growth in global oil consumption has sparked a growing interest in predicting "peak oil". "Peak oil" is the point where oil production reaches a maximum and then declines. Scientists have developed several models to forecast this point,and some put the date at 2020 or later. One of the most famous forecast models is called the Hubbert model
  2.It assumes that global oil production will follow a bell shaped curve
  3.A related concept is that4 of "Peak Oil." The term "Peak Oil" indicates the moment in which world wide production will peak,afterwards to start on irreversible decline. The Hubbert model accurately predicted that oil production would peak in the United States in 19
  70.The model has since gained in popularity and has been used to forecast oil production worldwide. However,recent studies show that the model is insufficient to account for5 more complex oil production cycles of some countries. Those cycles can be heavily influenced by technology changes, politics,and other factors,the scientists say. The new study describes development of a new version of the Hubbert model that provides a more realistic and accurate oil production forecast. Using the new model,the scientists evaluated the oil production trends of 47 major oil-producing countries,which supply most of the world’s conventional crude oil
  6.They estimated that worldwide conventional crude oil production will peak in 20
  14,years earlier than anticipated. The scientists also showed that the world’s oil reserves7
are being reduced at a rate of
  2.1 percent a year. The new model could help inform energy-related decisions and public policy debate,they suggest. 词汇: 词汇: conserve v.保护,保存 irreversible adj.不可逆的,不可改变的 crude oil 原油 spark v.闪耀;激发;鼓舞 insufficient 不充分的,不足的 curve n.曲线 注释: 注释:
  1.ACS’Energy&Fuels: 是 American Chemical Society(美国化学学会)的缩写。 ACS 该学会成立于 1876 年,现已成为世界最大的科技协会。多年来,ACS 一直致力于为全球化学研究机构、企业及个人提供高品 质的文献资讯及服务。ACS 出版的期刊有 34 种,这些期刊在化学领域中是被引用次数最多的化学期刊, Energy&Fuels 即是其中一本。
  2.the Hubbert model:赫伯特模型是美国地质学家 M.King Hubbert 于 1956 年创建的,这是一个随时 间增长的模型,Hubbert 将其引入油气田开发,经推导使其成为一个可以预测油气田累积产量、瞬时产量、 年产量和可采储量等多项开发指标的多功能预测模型。
  3.a bell shaped curve:钟形曲线
  4.that of peak oil:that 指代 concept。
  5.account for:说明,解释
  6.conventional crude oil:常规原油
  7.oil reserves:石油储量。通常使用复数形式 reserves。 练习: 练习:
  1.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "sparked" appearing in paragraph 2 ? A.flashed B.stimulated C.changed D.ended

  2.The term "a bell shaped curve" appearing in paragraph 2 indicates that global oil production will A.take the shape of a flat curve. B.keep growing. C.keep declining. D.start to decline after global oil production peaks.
  3.Which of the following is NOT true of the Hubbert model? A.It successfully predicted that oil production peaked in the U.S.in 19
  70. B.It has been used to predict oil production in many countries. C.It is insufficient to explain oil production cycles in some countries. D.It provides a very realistic and accurate oil production.
  4.What is the major achievement of the new study mentioned in the last paragraph? A.It predicts global oil production will peak in 20
  14. B.It predicts oil production will decline in 47 countries. C.It confirms further the effectiveness of the Hubbert model. D.It discovers a new gend of worldwide oil production.
  5.Who develop the new version of the Hubbert model ? A.American scientists. B.Kuwaiti scientists. C.British scientists. D.Scientists of 47 major oil-producing countries. 答案与题解: 答案与题解:
  1.B spark 一词做及物动词使用时有“发动”、“激发"的意思,在此意为 stimulated,即“引发”, 这个句子的意思是:全球石油消费的快速增长已引发了对“石油峰值”预测的兴趣。

  2.D 此句接下来的句子中所提到的 a related concept 即是与 a bell shaped curve 相关的概念,也 就是说,接下来的这个句子对 a bell shaped curve 做了解释,即世界石油生产达到最大峰值后将下降。
  3.D 文章的第三段告诉我们,Hubbert 预测模型精确地预测到美国石油生产于 1970 年将达到峰值。这 一模型自受到公认后,已用于预测世界石油生产。第四段说,这一模型对于某些国家更加复杂的石油生产 周期而言,其计算尚不充分。这些生产周期受到技术的改变、政策和其他因素的很大影响。所以,A、B 和 C 都是对 Hubbert 模型的正确说明。
  4.A 选项 B、C 和 D 所述内容均未在文章中提到。最后一段告诉我们,科学家使用新的模型评估了 47 个主要的产油国家的石油生产趋势,并预计全球常规原油生产到 2014 年将达最高峰值。所以,A 是答案。
  5.B 短文第一段的第一个句子提供了答案。 第六篇 Weaving with Light In the Sierra Madre mountain range of west central Mexico
  1,the native Huichol people2 live much the way their ancestors did-without electricity. That's because it's too expensive to string power lines3 to the remote mountain areas where they live. To help support themselves,the Huichol create beautiful artwork. They sell their art in cities hundreds of miles away from their villages. And without electricity-at home or on the road,they can only work during daylight hours. When it gets dark,they must stop whatever they’re doing. Now,a team of scientists,designers,and architects is using4 new technologies to provide the Huichol with light after the sun sets The scientists' technique involves weaving tiny electronic crystals into fabrics that can be made into clothes,bags,or other items. By collecting the sun’s energy during the day,these lightweight fabrics provide bright white light at night. Their inventors have named the fabrics "Portable Lights." Portable Lights have the potential to transform the lives of people without electricity around the world,says project leader Sheila Kennedy. “Our invention,”Kennedy says,“came from seeing how we could transform technology we saw every day in the United States and move it into new markets for people who didn’t have a lot of money.” At the core of5 Portable Light technology are devices called high-brightness light-emitting diodes,or HB LEDs
  6.These tiny lights appear in digital clocks,televisions,and streetlights. LEDs are completely different from the light bulbs. Most of those glass bulbs belong to a type called incandescent lights. Inside,electricity heats a metal coil to about 2,200 degrees Celsius. At that temperature,bulbs give off light we can see. Ninety percent of energy produced by incandescent lights,however,is heat - and invisible. With all that wasted energy,bulbs bum out quickly. They are also easily broken.
LEDs,on the other hand,are like tiny pieces of rock made up of molecules that are arranged in a crystal structure. When an electric current passes through an LED,the crystal structure produces light. Unlike incandescent bulbs,they can produce light of various colors. Within an LED,the type of molecules and their particular arrangement determines what color is produced. 词汇: 词汇: Portable adj.轻便的,手提式的 incandescent adj.白灼的 Light-emitting diode(LED) 发光二极管 coil n.线圈,卷,圈 Bulb n.灯泡;球状物 molecule n.分子 注释: 注释:
  1.Sierra Madre mountain range of west central Mexico:墨西哥中西部的马德雷山脉。Sierra 一 词在西班牙语中本身就包含了“山脉”的意思,确切地说是“呈齿状起伏的山脉",因为在西班牙语中 Sierra 有“锯子"的意思。
  2.Huichol people:维克人。他们是居住在墨西哥中西部地区马德雷山脉的土著印地安人。该地区山 路崎岖,所以西班牙人未涉足于此,墨西哥文化也没能影响维克人的土著文化。据估计,维克印地安人现 仅存约一万人。
  3.string power lines:架设输电线
  4.Now,a team of scientists…is using:a team of scientists 可以视作单数,也可以视作复数。 本句用作单数,所以后接的谓语动词是 is。
  5.At the core of:此处 the core of 意为 the basic or most important part of(最重要的部分)。
  6.At the core of Portable Light technology are devices called high-brightness light-emitting diodes, or HB LEDs:本句是倒装句,主语是“devices called high-brightness light-emitting diodes, or HB LEDs",谓语动词是“are”。High-brightness light-emitting diodes 可译为“高亮度发光二极 管。 练习: 练习:
  1.To make a living,the Huichol create artwork and A.sell it to tourists in their villages. B.sell it in cities far away from their villages. C.display it in their village museum. D.keep it in their homes to attract tourists.

  2.Why Can Portable Lights emit light? A.Electronic crystals are woven into fabrics. B.Items such as clothes and bags are used to carry lights. C.The sun’s energy is collected during the day. D.All of the above.
  3.What does Sheila Kennedy say about Portable Lights? A.This invention Can change the lives of people,both rich and poor. B.They are widely used in the United States. C.Portable Lights can help poor people around the world to get light. D.They are expensive to make but easy to carry.
  4.What is the most important part of the Portable Light technology? A.HB LEDs B.Glass Bulbs. C.Incandescent lights. D.Heated metal coils.
  5.LEDs are different from light bulbs in that A.LEDs ale incandescent lights while light bulbs are not. B.LEDs have a metal coil while light bulbs have not. C.LEDs emit colored light while most fight bulbs don’t. D.LEDs are made up of tiny pieces of rock while light bulbs are not. 答案与题解: 答案与题解:
  1.B 短文的第一段提供了答案,该段告诉我们,维克人为了谋生,制作工艺品,并到几百英里以外的 城市去销售。
  2.D 文章的第二和第三段包括了 A、B 和 C 所述内容。所以 D 是答案。

  3.C 短文的第四和第五段提供了答案。短文第四段的句子说了 Potable Lights 可以在世界范围内改变 穷乡僻壤用不上电的人们的生活,C 准确地表达了这层意思,所以是答案。A 不是答案,说 Potable Lights 能改变富人穷人的生活, 不符合原文的意思。 短文没有提及 Portable Lights 在美国使用, 也没有说 Portable Lights 是否花费很大。所以 B 和 D 都不是答案。
  4.A 第六段的第一句提供了答案。Portable Lights 技术的最主要部分是 high-brightness light-emitting diodes,即高亮度发光二极管。
  5.C 短文的第六段对 light bulbs 进行了描述。第二句中的 those glass bulbs 即指第一句中的 light bulbs。因此,LEDs 不是 incandescent lights(白炽灯),也没有金属丝。所以 A 和 B 均是错误的选择。最 后一段的第一个句子 LEDs,on the other hand,are like tiny pieces of rock made up of molecules that are arranged in a crystal structure 中的 like pieces of rock,不 等于 pieces of rock,所以,D 也是错误选择。根据短文的最后一段内容,C 是正确选择。 第三十四篇 Batteries Built by Viruses What do chicken pox, the common cold,the flu,and AIDS have in common? They're all disease caused by viruses,tiny microorganisms that can pass from person to person. It’s no wonder1 that when most people think about viruses, finding ways to steer clear of2 viruses is what's on people's minds. Not everyone runs from the tiny disease carriers, though
  3.In Cambridge,Massachusetts4, scientists have discovered that some viruses can be helpful in an unusual way. They are putting viruses to work,teaching them to build some of the world’s smallest rechargeable batteries. Viruses and batteries may seem like an unusual pair, but they're not so strange for engineer Angela Belcher, who first came up with5 the idea. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge,she and her collaborators bring together different areas of science in new ways. In
 

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