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Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)
  时态
  
  1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束.
  I’ve been writing letters for an hour.
  I’ve been sitting in the garden.
  
  2)过去完成进行时(由had been + ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作
  I’d been working for some time when he called.
  We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.
  
  3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作.
  By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years.
  In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years.
  
  4)将来完成时(由shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时会业已发生的事.
  I shall have finished this one before lunch.
  They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October.
  语态
  可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如:
  He was said to be jealous of her success.
  It was said that he was jealous of her success.
  能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.
  It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.
  The ship is supposed to have been sunk.
  担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:
  Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制)
  双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态
  双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.
  He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.
  Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations.
  宾补结构的被动语态:
  She was called Big Sister by everybody.
  Then he was made a squad leader.
  He was considered quite qualified for the job.
  The room was always kept clean and tidy.
  短语动词
  Vi + adv
  The plane took off two hours late.
  Vi + prep
  They looked round the Cathedral.
  Vi + prep (有被动语态)
  She’s looking after her sister’s children.
  The children were always well looked after.
  Vi + adv + prep
  I began to look forward to their visits.
  Vt + O + adv
  Some women choose to stay at home and bring up their children.
  The children were brought up by their mother.
  They took him on.
  Vt + adv + O (无被动语态)
  I am trying to give up smoking.
  Vt + O + prep
  We talked Donald into agreement.
省略
  在以as, than, when, if, unless等引导的从句中的省略: 在有些状语从句中,如果谓语包含有动词be,主语又和主句的主语一致a),或者主语是it b),就常常可以把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(特别是动词be)省略掉.
  Look out for cars when crossing the street.
  When taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effects.
  While there he joined in voluntary labour on a project.
  Although not yet six months old, she was able to walk without support.
  If not well managed, irrigation can be harmful.
  Though reduced in numbers, they gained in fighting capacity.
  This viewpoint, however understandable, is wrong.
  Enemies, once discovered, were tightly encircled and completely wiped out.
  She hurriedly left the room as though/if angry.
  She worked extremely hard though still rather poor in health.
  Fill in the application as instructed.
  Whenever known, such facts should be reported.
  The documents will be returned as soon as signed.
  He said that no acrobat could ever perform those daring feats unless trained very young.
  Once having made a promise, you should keep it.
  If necessary I’ll have the letter duplicated.
  Fill in the blanks with articles where(ver) necessary.
  If possible, I should like to have two copies of it.
  As scheduled, they met on January 20 at the Chinese Embassy.
  在以than a) 或 as b) 引起的从句中,常会有一些成分省略.
  He told me not to use more material than (it is) necessary.
  We should think more of the collective than of ourselves.
  They worked with as much enthusiasm as young people (did).
  He is now a vice-manager, but still often works in the kitchen as before.
  Their training is free, as is all education.
  We will, as always, stand on your side.
  错误的省略
  His life is as fully committed to books as anyone I know.
  While standing there in her nightgown, two bullets struck the wall beside her.
  一致
  如果主语是单数,尽管后面跟有with, together with, as well as, as much as, no less than, more than等引导的短语,谓语动词仍旧用单数形式.
  Terry, along with her friend, goes skating every Saturday.
  An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work.
  The captain, as well as the coaches, was disappointed in the team.
代词作主语时的一致
  each, either, neither和由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词,都作单数看待.
  Each of us has something to say.
  Is everybody ready?
  Somebody is using the phone.
  Neither of us has gone through regular training.
  Has either of them told you?
  some, few, both, many 等作复数
  some 可后接复数,也可接单数,表示某一.
  none作复数看待时较多,但也有时作单数看待,主要看说话人脑中联系想到的是复数还是单数概念, 但none 在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数:
  None of the books are easy enough for us
  None of us seem to have thought of it.
  None (= not a single one) of us has got a camera.
  None (= nobody) has felt it more keenly than she did.
  None of this worries me.
  all 和most 可后接复数,也可接不可数名词 (all of the…, most of the …), 动词用单数.
  由and 或 both… and 连接名词词组时, 后用复数; 由not only…but (also), either…or, neither…nor或 or 连接的并列主语, 谓语通常和最邻近的主语一致.
  Not only the switches but also the old writing has been changed.
  My sister or my brother is likely to be at home.
  Either you or Mr Yang is to do the work.
  Neither my wife nor I myself am able to persuade my daughter to change her mind.
  如果一个句子是由there 或here引导, 而主语又不止一个, 谓语通常也和最邻近的那个主语一致.
  There was carved in the board a dragon and a phoenix.
  Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.
  people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽), militia (民兵) 等通常都用作复数.
  Cattle are grazing on the pasture.
  The police are looking for him.
  有些集体名词有时作单数看待, 有时作复数看待, 主要根据意思来决定.
  His family isn’t very large.
  His family are all music lovers.
  The committee meets twice a month.
  The committee are divided in opinion.
  The audience was enormous.
  The audience were greatly moved at the words.
  有些名词单复数同形, 可根据意思决定谓语动词的数:
  This new series is beginning next month.
  These new series are beginning next month.
  This species is now extinct.
  These species are now extinct.
  表示时间, 重量, 长度, 价值等的名词, 尽管仍是复数形式, 如果作整体看待, 动词也可用单数形式 (当然用复数动词也是可以的):
  Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
  One hundred li was covered in a single night.
其他问题
  书名, 国家名用单数:
  Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb.
  学科名, 如mathematics, economics用单数.
  many a 或more than one 所修饰的词作主语时, 谓语动词多用单数形式:
  Many a person has had that kind of experience.
  More than one person has involved in the case.
  a number of 后接复数, the number of后接单数:
  A number of books have been published on the subject.
  The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing.
  one of those 后用单数. 在“one of + 复数名词 +关系分句”结构中,关系分句中谓语动词的单复数形式在一般情况下有两形式,一是根据先行词采用复数形式:
  Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.
  当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式:
  He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.
  Ⅱ 非谓语动词
  不定式
  形式
  完成式: 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作, 通常与主要谓语表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生, 或是在它之后发生. 假如不定式所表示的动作, 在谓语所表示的动作(状态)之前发生, 就要用不定式的完成式.
  I am glad to have seen your mother (= I am glad I have seen your mother).
  (比较: I am glad to see you.)
  He is said to have written a new book about workers.
  He pretended not to have seen me.
  进行式: 如果主要谓语表示的动作(状态)发生时, 不定式表示的动作正在进行, 这时要用不定式的进行式.
  You are not supposed to be working. You haven’t quite recovered yet.
  We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here.
  He pretended to be listening attentively.
  完成进行式: 在谓语所表示的时间之前一直进行的动作, 就要用不定式的完成进行式.
  The struggle was known to have been going for twenty years.
  We are happy to have been working with you.
被动式
  被动式: 当不定式的逻辑上的主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被动形式.
  It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here.
  She hated to be flattered.
  He wanted the letter to be typed at once.
  This is bound to be found out.
  There are a lot of things to be done.
  She was too young to be assigned such work.
  功用: 不定式可以作主语 (a), 宾语 (b), 表语 (c), 定语 (d) 或是状语 (e).
  a. To scold her would not be just.
  b. We are planning to build a reservoir here.
  c. One of our main tasks now is to mechanize agriculture.
  d. Do you have anything to declare?
  e. We have come to learn from you.
  不带to 的不定式:
  在“动词+ 宾语+不定式”结构中, 如果动词是表示感觉意义的see, hear, watch, smell, feel, notice等, 或是表示“致使”意义的 have, make, let等, 其后的不定式结构不带to.
  John made her tell him everything.
  这类结构转换为被动语态时, 后面的不带to 的不定式一般还原为带to 的不定式.
  She was made to tell him everything.
  在 had better, had best, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might (just) as well, cannot but 等搭配之后, 动词不定式也不带to.
  I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.
  They cannot but accept his term.
  在make do, make believe, let drop, let fall, let fly, let slip, let drive, let go of, let there be, hear say, hear tell, leave go of等固定搭配中, 用不带to的动词不定式.
  John let fly a torrent of abuse at me.
  I’ve heard tell of him.
  在动词help(或help +宾语)之后可用不带to的不定式, 也可用带to的不定式.
  Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?
  在介词except, but 之后, 如果其前有动词do的某种形式, 不定式一般不带to, 反之带to.
  There is nothing to do except wait till it stops raining.
  Smith will do anything but work on a farm.
  There’s no choice but to wait till it stops raining.
  连词 rather than, sooner than 置于句首时, 其后的不定式不带to.
  Rather than push the book back as he wanted to do, he forced himself to pick it up.
  出现在句中其他位置时, 其后的不定式有时带to, 有时不带to.
  He decided to write rather than telephone.
  The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages.
  用作补语的动词不定式, 如果主语是由“all + 关系分句”,“thing +关系分句”,“what分句”或“thing +不定式结构”等构成,并带有do的某种形式,这时,作为主语补语的不定式可以省to,也可以
 

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