职称英语阅读理解与完型新增文章
第八篇
The State of Marriage Today
Is there something seriously wrong with marriage today? During the past 50 years,the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded:almost
  50%of marriages end in divorce now, and the evidence suggests it is going to get worse.If this trend continues.it will lead to the breakup of the family,according to a spokesperson for the National Family Association.Some futurists predict that in l 00 years.the average American will marry at least four times.and extramarital affairs will be even more common than they are now.
But what are the reasons for this,and is the picture really so gloomy? The answer to the first question is really quite simple:marriage is no longer the necessity it once was.The institution of marriage has been based for years partly on economic need.Women used to be economically dependent on their husbands as they usually didn’t have jobs outside the home.But with the rising number of women in well?paying jobs,this is no longer the case,so they don’t feel that they need to stay in a failing marriage.
In answer to the second question,the outlook may not be as pessimistic as it seems.While the rate of divorce has risen,the rate of couples marrying has never actually fallen very much,so marriage is still quite popular.In addition to this.many couples now cohabit and don’t bother to marry.These couples are effectively married,but they do not appear in either the marriage or divorce statistics.In fact.more than
  50%Of first marriages survive.The statistics are deceptive because there is a higher number of divorces in second and third marriages than in first marriages.
So is marriage really an outdated institution? The fact that most people still get married indicates that it isn’t.And it is also true that married couples have a healthier life than single people:they suffer less from stress and its consequences,such as heart problems,and married men generally consider themselves more contented than their single counterparts.Perhaps the key is to find out what makes a successful marriage and apply it to all of our relationships!
词汇:
Divorce n.离婚
Evidence n.证据,迹象
Futurist n.未来主义者
Explode v.激增,迅速扩大
Predict v.预言,预料,预报
Extramarital adj.婚外的
Gloomy adj.阴暗的;令人沮丧的
Institution n.制度,习俗
Outlook n.展望,前景
Pessimistic adj.悲观的
Cohabit v.同居
Effectively ad.实际上
Statistics n.统计,统计资料
Deceptive adj.迷惑的,骗人的
Outdated adj.旧式的,过时的
Indicate v.表明,暗示
Consequence n.结果,后果
Contented adj.满足的,满意的
Counterpart n.对应的人(或物)
注释:
National Family Association:美国国家家庭联合会
练习:

  1.Which is true about the problem of marriage in the United States today?
A) Divorce leads to the breakup of the family.
B) Half of the married couples get divorced:
C) American people marry more than four times.
D) More and more people are getting divorced.

  2.What does “this is no longer the case” in paragraph two mean?
A) It is not necessary to get married any more.
B) Women do not need a husband any longer.
C) Women are not economically dependant any more.
D) Many wives do well-paying jobs outside home now.

  3.Why may the outlook of marriage not be as gloomy as it appears?
A) Many people still like to get married.
B) The rate of divorce has actually decreased.
C) Over
  50%of the marriages continue to exist.
D) The statistics of divorce is not quite true。

  4.How do people usually feel in their marriage life?
A) They are much healthier.
B) They feel no longer single.
C) They are more satisfied.
D)They suffer a lot less.

  5.Which of the following about marriage is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A) There will be more relationships outside marriage.
B) Many people try to get married again after divorce.
C) Marriage has long been partly an economical need.
D) It is a fact that most people choose to get married.
答案与题解:

  1.D 从第一段里可以了解到选项A与C都是预计将来会发生的,而不是如今的情况。B选项与第一段第二句“almost
  50%of the marriages end in divorce”不符。第一段第二句里的“the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded”、“the evidence suggests it is going to get worse”话语正好说明了D选项的情况。

  2.C 第二段第四句、第五句说得很清楚,妇女们如今在外工作在经济上不再依赖她们的丈夫,因此觉得无需维持行将失败的婚姻。

  3.A从第三段里可以了解到离婚率并没有下降而是上升了,因此B选项不对。而C选项与第三段里“In fact,more than
  50%of first marriages survive”所说不符,该选项没有提到是第一次婚姻。同样,D选项在文中也没有说到,文中第三段的最后一句只是说统计数据具有欺骗性,而没有说数据失实。

  4.C文中第四段第三句的后半句说得很清楚,结了婚的人比单身的人更满足。A,D选项提到的是实际情况而不是婚后人们的感觉,因此不对。文中并没有提到选项B所说的情况。

  5.B A选项在第一段最后一句里提到了,C选项和D选项分别在第二段、第四段里提到了,而B选项却没有哪一段具体提到。
*第三十八篇
Excessive Demands on Young People
Being able to multitask is hailed by most people as a welcome skill,but not according to a recent study which claims that young people between the ages of eight and eighteen of the so-called Generation M1 are spending a considerable amount of their time in fruitless efforts as they multitask. It argues that, in fact, these young people are frittering away as much as half of their time again as they would if they performed the very same tasks one after the other.
Some young people are juggling an ever larger number of electronic devices as they study. At the same time that they are working, young adults are also surfing on the Internet, or sending out emails to their friends, and/or answering the telephone and listening to music on their iPods2
or On another computer. As some new device comes along it too is added to the list rather than replacing one of the existing devices.
Other research has indicated that this multitasking is even affecting the way families themselves function as young people are too wrapped up3 in their own isolated worlds to interact with the other people around them. They can no longer greet family members when they enter the house nor can they eat at the family table.
All this electronic wizardry is supposedly also seriously affecting young people's performance at university and in the workplace. When asked about their perception of the impact of modern gadgets on their performance of tasks, the overwhelming majority of young people gave a favourable response.
The response from the academic and business worlds was not quite as positive. The former feel that multitasking with electronic gadgets by children affects later development of study skills, resulting in a decline in the quality of writing, for example, because of the lack of concentration on task completion. They feel that many undergraduates now urgently need remedial help with study skills. Similarly, employers feel that young people entering the workforce need to be taught all over again, as they have become deskilled.
While all this may be true, it must be borne in mind4 that more and more is expected of young people nowadays; in fact, too much. Praise rather than criticism is due in respect of5 the way today's youth are able to cope despite what the older generation throw at them.
词汇:
excessive adj.过多的,额外
interact vi.交流,沟通,互动
multitask vi.同时进行多个任务
wizardry n.魔力,法术
supposedly adv.据认为,据推测
hail vt.赞扬
performance n.表现,行为
claim vt.声称,主张
perception n.认识,看法,见解
considerable adj. 相当大的,相当多的
impact n. 影响,作用
gadget n. 小巧的机械装置
fritter vt. 消费,浪费
overwhelming adj. 压倒性的
juggle vt. 耍弄,玩耍
majority n. 大多数
electronic device n. 电子装置,电子仪器
academic adj. 学术的,学校的
decline n. 下降,衰退
surf vi. (网上)冲浪,漫游,浏览
concentration n. 专心,专注
indicate vt. 表明,指出
remedial adj. 补习的,补救的
affect vt. 影响
deskilled adj. 逐渐失去技能的
isolated adj. 鼓励的,与世隔绝的
due adj. 应有的,适当的
注释:

  1. Generation M: M代表 multimedia。Generation M 即“多媒体时代”,是指伴随着计算机和因特网的普及而成长起来的一代年轻人。他们多出生于1980年之后,热衷于计算机、因特网、视频游戏、智能手机。这些新媒体和传统媒体如电视、印刷品、音响制品结合起来,使得他们的世界异常丰富多彩。“多媒体时代”的另一特征就是可以 multitask,即多项任务同时进行,如他们可以_边上网冲浪、一边听着音乐、一边看着电视里的MTV、一边和朋友短信聊天、同时还做着自己的家庭作业。

  2.iPod:美国苹果公司的一款音乐播放器,除了可以播放MP3音乐外,iPod还可以作为高速移动硬盘使用,可以显示联系人、日历和任务,以及阅读电子书和聆听有声电子书以及播客(Podcasts)。

  3.be wrapped up in...注意力完全集中于……

  4.bear in mind记住

  5.in respect of关于,就……而言
练习:

  1. According to a recent study, what is probably true about the multitasking Generation M?
A)They are highly commended for being so effective and efficient.
B)They waste more time than they should save, contrary to common assumptions.
C)They should prioritize and focus on the most important tasks on hand.
D)They need to improve their organizational skills SO as to complete all their tasks.

  2.With the advent of new gadgets, what will happen to Generation M's present e-devices?
A)They make way for the latest and greatest and are retired by the young people.
B)They are put away temporarily but stay in rotation for their owners to choose from.
C)They become part of the ever increasing collection of novelties.
D)They are either sold or traded so that their owners can update their toys and hobbies.

  3.How will multitasking affect Generation M adversely?
A) It makes them feel lonely and pitiful.
B) It makes them aloof and elusive to family and friends.
C) It makes them selfish and possessive.
D) It makes them impolite and ungrateful.

  4.What is the biggest problem for multitasking undergraduates in universities?
A) They should adjust their academic attitudes seriously.
B) They should seek psychological professionals for assistance.
C) They should take some crash courses to catch up with their classmates.
D) They should try harder to focus on one task before moving on to the next.

  5.In dealing with today's youth, what approach should parents take?
A) Be supportive and understanding.
B) Be realistic and lower their expectations.
C) Be encouraging and let their children stick to their old habits.
D) Be patient and hope everything will work out just fine eventually.
答案与题解:

  1.B 从第一段第一句话中的"a considerable amount of their time""fruitless efforts''以及该段最后一句话中的"frittering away as much as…"可以进行同义替换,waste就是fruitless和fritter的同义词。

  2.C 从第二段的最后一句话中的"added to the list rather than replacing"可以判断出,这些年轻人的电子设备是越来越多,而不是A被取而代之、8被轮流使用、D被出售或交换以便买更新的产品。

  3.B 答案A是文字游戏,原文中"isolated worlds"应该理解为孤立的世界,即独自“alone”,而不是孤独“lonely”。答案C说他们变得自私和占有欲强,想买更多电子产品,显然不对。答案D说他们变得不懂礼貌和不知感恩,均是对第三段最后一句话中的“no longer greet”和“nor can they eat at the family table”的字面理解。答案B是两个近义词,重点在性格变化上,变得“若即若离,难以捉摸”。

  4.D 答案A认为是态度问题,把客观问题主观化。答案B是遇到选项,试图用“remedial help”误导大家联想到remedy一词,故引出 psychological professional 的曲解。答案C把第五段第一句中的“later development”和“decline in the quality of…”表象化,认为应该抓紧赶上同学(catch up)。答案D才是正确答案,问题症结在于multitasking 难以让人集中注意力,造成浪费时间、影响表现等后果,这些前文均已提过。

  5.A 答案A把praise 替换成了相对隐性的近义词。答案B只针对最后一段的第一句话,断章取义。答案C前半部分encouragin
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