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语法复习十:动词的语气??虚拟语气 语法复习十:动词的语气??虚拟语气 ??
一、语气的定义和种类 l、语气:语气是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。
  2、语气的种类: (
  1)陈述语气: 表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些 感叹句。如:We are not ready. 我们没准备好。What a fine day it is!多好的天气啊! (
  2)祈使语气: 表示说话人的建议、请求、邀请、命令等。如: Open the door, please。请打开 门。 (
  3)虚拟语气: 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实, 而是说话人的主观愿望、 假设或推测等。 如: If I were you, I should study English. 如果我是你, 我就学英语了。 May you succeed! 祝您成功! 二、虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句,一类是虚拟条件句。如果假设的情况是有可能发生的, 就是真实条件何。在这种真实条件句中的谓语用陈述语气。如: If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果明天不下雨,我们就去公园。 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如: If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 如果他昨天见到你, 他会问你这件事 的。(事实上他昨天没见到你,因此也未能问你这件事。) 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中, 主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。 现将虚拟条件从句和主 句的动词形式列表如下: 从 与现在事实相反 与过去事实相反 与将来事实相反 般用were) had + 过去分词 动词过去式,should + 动词原 形,were to + 动词原形 句 词原形 would/ should/ could/ might + have + 过去分词 would/ should/ could/ might + 动 词原形 主 句
动词的过去式(be的过去式一
would/ should/ could/ might + 动
注: 主句中的should只用于I、we,但在美国英语中,should常被would代替;从句中的should 可用于各种人称。 l、 表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。 If my brother were here, everything would be all right. 如: 要是我哥哥在这儿 ,一切都没问题了。
  2、表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。如: If you had taken my advice,you wouldn't
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(couldn’t) have failed in the exam. 如果你按照我的建议去做,你一定不会(不可能)考试不及格。
  3、表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果。如: If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should (would,could,might) go to see my grandmother. 如果明天是星期天,我就 (可能)去看望我奶 奶。If it were to snow this evening, they would not go out. 如果今晚下雪,他们将不出去了。
  4、有时条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生的时间不一致(表示错综时间的虚拟语气) , 这时动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整。 例如: If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now. 如果你当初听了医生的话,身体现在就好了。(从句动作指过去,主句动作指现 在)
  5、虚拟条件句可以转换成下列形式: (l)省略连词if。在书面语中,如果虚拟条件从句中有were,had 或 should,可以把if省略, 把这几个词放到主语之前, 构成主谓倒装。 例如: Should he come (If he should come), tell him to ring me up. 他要是来了,让他给我打个电话。Were I you (If I were you), I would not do it. 我要是你, 就不做这事。 (
  2)用介词短语代替条件状语从句。有时假设的情况并不用条件从句表示出来,而是通过介 词短语来表示。如: Without air (If there were not air), there would be no living things. 如果没有空气 的话,就不会有生物了。But for your help (If it hadn’t been for your help) I couldn’t have done it. 要 是没有你的帮助,我就不可能完成这件事。 假设的情况有时可以通过上下文或其他方式表现出来。如: I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone there with them. (If I hadn’t been busy that day, I would have gone there with them.) 我那天很忙,否则,我就和他们一起去那儿了。(如果我那天不忙的话,我就……);I would have finished the work, but I have been ill. (If I hadn’t been ill, I would have finished the work.) 我本来该 完成这项工作的,但我生病了。(如果我没生病的话,我就会完成……)
  6、省去条件从句或主句:表示虚拟语气的主句或从句有时可以省略,但其含义仍可以推知。 (
  1)省去条件从句。如: You could have washed your clothes yourself. 你本可以自已洗衣服的。 省去了"If you had wanted to")(事实是:你自己没洗衣服,因为你不想洗。) (
  2)省去主句(常用以表示愿望)。如: If my grandmother were with me! 如果我的祖母与我在一 起多好啊!(事实是:祖母已不在世。);If only she had not left! 如果她没走就好了!(事实是:她已经 走了。) 三、虚拟语气的其他用法 l、虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法:在"It is important (strange,natural,necessary)that…"这类 句型里,that所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用 “should十动词原形”结构,表示某事是"重要"、 "奇怪"、 "自然"、 "必要"等意义。 It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these 如:
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rules. 重要的是每个成员知道这些规则。
  2、虚拟语气在宾语从句中用法: (
  1)在动词wish后的宾语从句中,表示与现在或过去的事实相反,或对将来的主观愿望,从句 通常省略连词that。
  1) 表示对现在情况的虚拟 :从句动词用过去式或过去进行式(be动词一般用 were)。 I wish I knew the answer to the question. 我希望知道这个问题的答案。 如: (可惜不知道); ) 2
表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词常用"had十过去分词"。如: I wish (wished) I hadn’t spent so much
money. 我后悔不该花那么多钱。(实际上已经花掉);
  3)表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为 "would十动词原形"。此时要注意,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望 的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动物名词除外)。如: I wish it would stop raining. 但愿雨能停止;I wish you would come soon. 但愿你立刻来。 (
  2)在suggest,demand,order,propose,insist,command,request,desire等动词后的宾语从 句中,谓语动词用“should + 动词原形” ,表示建议、要求、命令等。如: I demand that he (should) answer me immediately. 我要求他立刻答复我。
  3、虚拟语气在状语从句中的用法 (
  1)在带有even if/ even though引导的让步状语从句的主从复合句中,主句和从句都用虚拟语 气, 动词形式与含有非真实条件句的虚拟语气相同。 Even if he had been ill, he would have gone 如: t his office. 即使生了病,他俩去办公室。 (
  2)由as if或as though引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时。从句谓语形式为动词的过去式(be 用were)或 “had十过去分词”。如: He treated me as if I were a stranger. 他那样对待我,好像我是陌 生人似的。She talked about the film as if she had really seen it. 她谈论那部影片,就好像她确实看 过一样。 注:如果表示的事情可能会发生,那么方式状语从句中的谓语动词可用陈述语气。 (
  3)在in order that或so that引导的目的状语从句中,谓语动词多用 “could或might(有时也用 should) 动词原形”。 Mr green spoke slowly so that his students could (might) hear clearly. 格林 + 如: 先生说得很慢,好让学生听清楚。
  4、虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法:在"It is time (that) …"句型中,定语从句的谓语动词常用 虚拟语气表示将来,动词形式一般用过去式,意思是"该干某事的时候了"。如: It’s (high) time we did our homework. 我们该做作业了。
  5、虚拟语气在简单句中的用法 (
  1)情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌,或委婉的语气, 常见于日常会话中。如: It would be better for you not to stay up too late. 你最好别太晚睡觉。 (
  2)在一些习惯表达中。如: I would rather not tell you. 我宁愿不告诉你。
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(
  3)用“may + 动词原形”表示"祝愿"、"但愿”,此时 may 须置于句首(多用于正式文体中) 。 如:May you be happy!祝你快乐!May good luck be yours.祝你顺利。
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练习、虚拟语气
  1. If I where he lived, I a note to him. A. knew, would C. know, would send B. had known, would have sent D. knew, would have sent

  2. If they earlier than expected, they here now. A. had started, would be C. had started, would have been B. started, might be D. will start, might have been

  3. I didn’t know his telephone number. it, I then. A. Had I known, would ring him up C. If I knew; would ring him up B. Should I know, would have rung him up D. Had I known; would have rung him up

  4. Mary is ill today. If she , she absent from school. A. were not ill; wouldn' t be C. had been ill; should have been
  5. Were I to do it, I it some other way. A. will do B. would do C. would have done D. were to do B. had been ill; wouldn't have been D. hadn't been ill; could be

  6. I him the answer possible, but I was so busy then. A. could tell; if it had been C. should have told; had it been
  7. Without your help, we so much. A. won ' t achieve C. don't achieve B. didn ' t achieve D. wouldn't have achieved B. must have told; were it D. should have told; should it be

  8. You didn't take his advice. his advice, you such a mistake. A. Had you taken; wouldn't have made C. Were you lo take; shouldn t have made B. If you had taken; would make D. Have you taken; won t have made

  9. We wish we what you did when we were at high school. A. did B. could have done C. have done D. should do

  10. She wishes she to the theatre last night. A. went B. would go C. had gone D. were going

  11. Tom is very short now. His mother wishes that he be tall when he grows up. A. could B. should C. would D. were able to

  12. My sister advised me that I accept the invitation. A. could B. must C. should D. might
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  13. He asks that he an opportunity to explain why he’s refused to go there. A. is given B. must give C. should give D. be given

  14. Do you think of Wang Fang's suggestion that he Mr. Li to the party? A. will invite B. have invited C. is invited D. invite

  15. I insisted that he at once. A. be gone B. go C. would go D. might go

  16. Li Ming insisted that he anything at all. A. hadn ' t stolen B. shouldn ' t steal C. doesn ' t steal D. steal

  17. It is quite natural that my coming late again them very angry. A. had made B. would make C. makes D. make

  18. He acted as if he everything in the world. A. knew B. knows C. has known D. won't know

  19. Read it aloud so that I you clearly. A. may hear B. will hear C. hear D. have heard

  20. They got up early in order that they they first train. A. caught B. will catch C. might catch D. shall catch

  21. I am sorry that he in such poor health. A. are B. shall be C. were D. should be

  22. That is a good book. You it yesterday. A. could buy B. should buy C. should have bought D. bought

  23. It is high time we home. A. will go B. would go C. have gone D. went

  24. I ' d rather that you home. A. went B. have gone C. will go D. had gone

  25. If only I to the lecture! A. listen
  26. If he B. will listen , he that food. C. am listening D. had listened
Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. B. had been warned; would not have taken D. would have been warned; had not taken
A. was warned; would not take C. would be warned; had not taken

  27.I didn' t see your sister at the meeting. If she , she would ha
 

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