2011 年公共英语等级考试三级句型复习汇总 4 第四部份: 第四部份:Phrases and Sentences:

  1、He is famous for vigorously opposing the use of chemicals to kill pets.这个句子中 重点解析的是 vigorously opposing 并翻译这句话。
注意的词语:vigorously opposing 积极反对翻译为:他因为积极反对用化学品杀宠物而 出名。

  2、What would you recommend for a tenth-grader?这个句子中重点解析的是 tenth-grad er 到底是十年级的学生, 还是十岁的小孩? tenth-grade 是“十年级”, 所以 tenth-grader 当然是 “十年纪的学生”了。十岁的小孩是:teenager

  3、They used Singapore as a microcosm for examining a regionwide tropical biodiver sity crisis.这个句子中重点解析的是 and compiled population data from the past two centur ies.翻译为:他们用新加坡作为检查热带地区的区域性的生活差异危机一个缩影,并用过去 两个世纪(的历史)来编纂人口数据。
其中 biodiversity 是由前缀 bio-和 diversity 组合而成的,意思是生命的差异性。

  4、Animals that call the forest home have suffered enormously.这个句子中重点解析的 是“call”在这句话的意思。
call 称为,当作。
翻译为:以森林为家的动物们受到了巨大的灾难。

  5、American and Europe will pool research into hydrogen-powered fuel cells.这个句子 中重点解析的是“pool”在这句话的意思。
pool 集中投入,pool 的名词意思是“池塘”,动词本义是“汇合成塘”的意思,这里用的是 比喻义,想象一下不难理解的。
翻译为:美国和欧洲将集中注资到氢燃料电池的研究中。

  6、It shows the United States is out to make peace with eco-friendly Europe.翻译为: 这表明美国将尽力与生态环境好的欧洲和平相处。
out 这里是副词,表示“致力于”。

  7、Fuel cells create electricity by combining oxygen and hydrogen without broducing harmful emissions, and technical construction poses few basic challenges.这个句子中重点 解析的是“call”在这句话的意思。
翻译为: 燃料电池通过氧气和氢气反应来发电而不发出有害物质, 并且在技术的组建上 提出了很少的挑战。
这里没有 call,只有 cell,是电池的意思,名词。pose challenge 提出挑战,就是指技术上 的难关。

  8、That means making use of renewable resources for the task, say wind and solar re sources.这个句子中重点解析的是“say”在这句话的意思。
翻译为:那意味着该任务是要利用可再生资源,比如风能和太阳能。
其中的 say 是副词,比如,相当于 for example.

  9、 Whitman assured the public that the air was safe before testing was conclusive. In addition, all EPA statements were required to be screened by the White House.翻译为:惠
特曼向公众保证在测试下结论之前空气是安全的。而且,所有的 EPA(美国环保署)申明都要 求经过白宫的筛选。
注意的词语: 动词,筛选/过滤 过滤。 注意的词语:screen 动词,筛选 过滤。

  10、But New York Sen.(senator,参议员。)Hillary Clinton is calling for an investigatio n, saying somebody surely leaned on the EPA to lie, which Whitman strongly denies.翻译 为:但是纽约的科学家希拉里?克林顿要求调查此事,说某些人明显的偏向于 EPA(美国环保 署)而说谎,对于这个,惠特曼坚决否认。
注意的词语:call for 相当于 demand、require;lean on 偏向于。
练习: 练习
When it comes to air pollution, the simple life isn't necessarily the safest. The most poisonous atmosphere in Asia is found not in rapidly modernizing cities like New Delhi o r Beijing but inside the kitchens of homes in rural Asia. Millions of families in the count ryside heat their abodes and cook with open fires using cheap fuels that belch carbon mo noxide and other noxious fumes at level up to 500 times international safety limits. Rural women and children often spend hours each day in poorly, ventilated kitchens, breathing this putrid air. "This is a problem that has been around forever, as long as humankind ha s existed, but it's been ignored," says Eva Rehfuess, a World Health Organization expert o n indoor air pollution. "If you walked into these kitchens, your eyes would start tearing a nd you would find it difficult to breathe. It's terrible. "
The WHO estimates that indoor air pollution cause
  1.6 million deaths per year in de veloping countries around the world, up to 555,000 of which occur in India alone-and ove rwhelmingly it's the poor who are dying. Villagers have no choice but to use wood, coal
or dung fires, raising the risk that young children will be killed by carboj-monoxide poiso ning or a bad case of pneumonia ravaging weakened lungs. Likewise, the women who typ ically keep their home fires burning are vulnerable to chronic respiratory diseases. "Day in and day out for 50 years, some of these women might be cooking six hours a day, exp osed to pollutions," says Rehfuess.
Curtailing indoor air pollution can be as simple as replacing open wood fires with be tter-ventilated cookstoves, but more sophisticated stoves can cost up to $1
  20. China and In dia, home to the world's largest rural populations, have launched ambitious national progra ms in recent decades to supply villagers with safer stoves at subsidized prices. But the pr ograms have not always worked, in India, for example, some 33 million stoves were give n out free to villagers in rural areas from 1984 to 2000-but because of a lack of health e ducation or follow-up maintenance, most families abandoned the cookstoves for their old f ires within a few years.
That's left nongovernmental organizations like the shell Foundation to step into the ga p. It has begun a pilot program with local Indian NGOs in a pair of rural states to devel op and market clean, wood-burning stoves that cost just $5-$10 yet can reduce emissions by up to 40%. The project is on track to sell 1000,000 stoves by the end of 2005, and t he groups plan to expand the program nationally in the future. Program manager Karen Westley says Shell and its partner NGOs made an effort to sell their customers not just more efficient tools but also the idea that different is better. "You have to make sure peo ple actually want that damn thing," says Westely. "They need to make the connection bet ween having a better stove, breathing less smoke and experiencing better health in the en d."
But habits ingrained by tradition can be hard to break. "They've been living with this always, and so have their mothers and grandmothers," says Rehfuess. "You have to give people the felling they can do something about it." And that they'll breathe a lot easier f or their trouble.
参考译文: 参考译文
说到空气污染,并不是说简单的日常生活就必然是最安全的。研究显示,在亚洲,毒气 最浓的空气并不在新德里和北京这样的现代化速度很快的城市, 而是在亚洲农村家庭的厨房 里。在农村,上百万的家庭用明火取暖或是做饭,他们使用的是廉价的燃料,这些燃料所释 放的一氧化碳量和其他有毒雾量是国际标准的 500 倍。 农村地区的妇女和孩子经常每天在通 风不好的厨房里待上几个小时,呼吸这种有毒的空气。"这个问题从人类诞生以来就一直存 在着,但是却一直被忽视了,"一位名叫伊娃.瑞弗丝的世界卫生组织室内空气污染方面的专 家说道,“走进厨房你的眼睛就开始流泪,而且你会觉得呼吸困难,这太可怕了。”
世界卫生组织估计,在发展中国家,室内空气污染造成每年 160 万人死亡,其中印度占 55 万??而且死亡的大部分都是穷人。村民们除了用木头,煤或者是粪肥来烧火之外别无 选择,这样会增加小孩子一氧化碳中毒死亡的危险,肺功能减弱,肺炎得病率增加。同样, 那些在家里生火的妇女很容易得慢性呼吸道疾病。 瑞弗丝说“有些妇女一天要花 6 小时做饭, 五十年里日复一日,每天都生活在污染中。”
减少室内空气污染其实非常简单, 只要用一套通风比较好的厨灶来代替木头生火就可以 了, 但是比较高级的厨灶要花 120 美元。 中国和印度是世界上两个农村地区人口最多的国家, 在最近几十年里启动了全国范围的救助项目,以补贴价格供给农村居民安全性能最好的厨 灶。但是,这个项目并不是一直起作用。例如,印度政府在 1984-2000 年间免费发放了三百 三十万套灶给农村地区农民, 但是由于缺少健康知识教育和相关维护, 多数家庭几年之后就 又回到他们原来的取火方式了。
这使得一些像谢尔基金会这样的非政府组织参与进来。 该组织与印度当地非政府组织在 一些乡村地区开始小规模实验项目,开发和推广干净的、燃烧木头的厨灶,并使之市场化。 这样厨灶可以减少 40%的氧化排放量,并且只需要 5-10 美元。这个项目计划到 2005 年底出 售 15 套厨灶,该组织准备今后在全国范围内推广这个项目。该项目的经理凯温.威斯特里说 谢尔和它的非政府组织合作伙伴努力销售给顾客的不光是一种最高效的工具, 而且还有一种 理念,那就是:有所改变会更好。威斯特里说:“你必须要确定人们确实想要那东西与他们 最终需要的联系, 即在拥有一套好的厨灶, 少呼吸烟雾和体验到健康的身体这三者之间建立 一种联系。”
但是根深蒂固的传统习惯很难改变。瑞弗丝说:“他们一直是这样生活的,包括他们的 母亲和祖母也是这样生活的,你需要给他们一种感觉,那就是他们可以对此做些改变。”这 样人们会对自己的麻烦事感到轻松许多。
 

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