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2011 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试 (万学?海文钻石卡第二次模拟考试) 英语(一)试卷
(科目代码:2
  01)
英 语
考生注意事项

  1. 答题前,考生须在答题纸指定位置上填写考生姓名、报考单位和考生编号。
  2. 答案必须写在答题纸指定位置上,写在其他地方无效。
  3. 填(书)写必须使用蓝(黑)色字迹钢笔、圆珠笔或签字笔。
  4. 考试结束,将答题纸和试题一并装入试题袋中交回。
题×××××××××××××××××××××××××
学校代码(主管咨询师姓名)
Section Ⅰ Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points)

  13.[A]fellow
  14.[A]asserting
  15.[A]summoned
  16.[A]set
  17.[A]allocated
[B]individual [B]alleging [B]evoked [B]exact [B]allotted [B]manages [B]irrespective [B]parties
[C]personal [C]maintaining [C]rallied [C]given [C]appointed [C]oversees [C]perspective [C]sides
[D]private [D]testifying [D]assembled [D]placed [D]assigned [D]presides [D]prospective [D]units
As former colonists of Great Britain, the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a “common law”, or law made by courts governmental 2 like a legislature. The jury, a 3 1 a monarch or other central 4

  18.[A]administers
  19.[A]inspective
  20.[A]bodies
of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an
part of our common-law system. Use of juries to decide cases is a 5 feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the 6 the centuries, many people have believed that juries in most 8 , as many countries do. 9 Part A Directions: Read the following four texts .Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40 points)
SectionⅡ Reading Comprehension

world use juries as we do in the United States. cases reach a fairer and more just result 7
would be obtained using a judge
a jury decides cases after “ 10 ”, or discussions among a group of people, the jury’s decision is likely to have the 11 from many different people from different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right. 12 among 13 citizens, and criminal cases, which

Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide 不 要 decide cases brought by the government the U.S. citizens and The judge 19 17 14
Text One It’s plain common sense?the more happiness you feel, the less unhappiness you experience. It’s plain common sense, but it’s not true. Recent research reveals that happiness and unhappiness are not really two sides of the same emotion. They are two distinct feelings that, coexisting, rise and fall independently. People might think that the higher a person’s level of unhappiness, the lower their level of happiness and vice versa. But when researchers measure people’s average levels of happiness and unhappiness, they often find little
报考学校
that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from 16 numbers, are called for each case requiring a jury.
15 . Jurors, consisting of to the case 18

the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states, 20
封 线
jurors are questioned by the judge; in others, they are questioned by the lawyers representing the
准考证号(钻石卡号)
under rules dictated by state law.
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  1.[A]other than
  2.[A]agency
  3.[A]panel
  4.[A]innate
[B]rather than [B]organization [B]crew [B]intact
[C]more than [C]institution [C]band [C]integral [C]determining [C]After [C]than [C]altogether [C]If [C]reflections [C]input [C]disputes
[D]or rather [D]authority [D]flock [D]integrated [D]diminishing [D]Over [D]as [D]apart [D]While [D]speculations [D]intake [D]hostilities
relationship between the two. The recognition that feelings of happiness and unhappiness can co-exist much like love and hate in a close relationship may offer valuable clues on how to lead a happier life. It suggests, for example, that changing or avoiding things that make you miserable may well make you less miserable, but probably won’t make you any happier. That advice is backed up by an extraordinary series of studies which indicate that a genetic predisposition for unhappiness may run in certain families. On the other hand, researchers have found happiness doesn’t appear to be anyone’s heritage. The capacity for joy is a talent you develop largely for yourself. Psychologists have settled on a working definition of the feeling?happiness is a sense of subjective well-being. They have also begun to find out who’s happy, who isn’t and why. To date, the research hasn’t found a simple formula for a happy life, but it has discovered some of the actions and attitudes that seem to bring people closer to that most desired of feelings. Why is unhappiness less influenced by environment? When we are happy, we are more responsive to people

  5.[A]discriminating [B]distinguishing
  6.[A]In
  7.[A]that
  8.[A]alike
  9.[A]Although [B]By [B]which [B]alone [B]Because
姓名

  10.[A]deliberations [B]meditations
  11.[A]outline
  12.[A]arguments [B]outcome [B]controversies
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and keep up connections better than when we are feeling sad. This doesn’t mean, however, that some people are born to be sad and that’s that. Genes may predispose one to unhappiness, but disposition can be influenced by personal choice. You can increase your happiness through your own actions.
What are the characteristics of a mediator? Foremost, the mediator needs to be seen as a respected neutral, objective third party who is capable of weighing out fairness in the resolution of a conflict. The mediator must be trusted by both parties to come up with a solution that will protect them from shame. While the central issue is justice, the outcome needs to be win-win, no losers. The abilities to listen impartially, suspend judgment, and

  21. According to the text, it is true that [A] unhappiness is more inherited than affected by environment. [B] happiness and unhappiness are mutually conditional. [C] unhappiness is subject to external more than internal factors. [D] happiness is an uncontrollable subjective feeling.
  22. The author argues that one can achieve happiness by [A] maintaining it at an average level. [B] escaping miserable occurrences in life. [C] pursuing it with one’s painstaking effort. [D] realizing its coexistence with unhappiness.
  23. The phrase “To date” (Para.
  4) can be best replaced by [A] As a result. [B] In addition. [C] At present. [D] Until now.
  24. What do you think the author believes about happiness and unhappiness? [A] One feels unhappy owing to his miserable origin. [B] They are independent but existing concurrently [C] One feels happy by participating in more activities. [D] They are actions and attitudes taken by human beings.
  25. The sentence “That’s that” (Para.
  5) probably means: Some people are born to be sad [A] and the situation cannot be altered. [B] and happiness remains inaccessible. [C] but they don’t think much about it. [D] but they remain unconscious of it.
accurately gather and assess information are other important characteristics. Finally, to function effectively the mediator must have power (financial, status, position), so that both parties will take seriously and abide by the mediator’s judgment. If one party refused to cooperate, he or she should fear the possibility of being shamed and losing face before the mediator and the whole community. If that real possibility does not enter the minds of both parties, the mediator will be ineffective. In several countries mediators are still used to find a bride for a man. Usually this is a job for the parents, and they in turn employ the services of a mediator. Because this event takes much planning, the parents will try to identify the mediator well in advance. Since these services sometimes require reward, money must be saved. Or in some cases parents try to do a number of favors for the mediator so that he or she will feel indebtedness and perform the service as a kind of repayment. The parents will try to get the most influential mediator possible, to boost their chances of being approved by the potential bride’s parents. The young woman’s parents will not want to risk shame by turning down a request from such an important person?so the reasoning goes. Of course, the higher-ranked the mediator, the higher the cost of the services. Complicating the process is the fact that turning down the mediator is also a slight of the potential groom and his parents, which will likely generate conflict between the families. If the parties are not careful, the entire community can take sides. One way to alleviate this eventuality is for the young woman’s family to identify a flaw that would make her a less desirable prospect. They might say, “She is sickly.” or “She may not be able to bear children.” Although none of these statements may be true, and probably everyone knows they aren’t, they do provide a way for the young man’s parents to withdraw their request for a perfectly legitimate reason. Everyone saves face, at least at the surface, and peace is preserved.

  26. The characteristics of a mediator include all of the following except [A] unbiased judgment of arguments. [B] hard prudence in decision-making. [C] impartial treatment to a conflict. [D] remarkable insight into controversies. Text Two
  27. The author deems it important for a mediator
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[A] to be quite wealthy and considerate. [B] to be powerful to shame either party. [C] to justify the solution of a conflict. [D] to have high status to fear arguers.
  28. In some courtiers, young people’ s marriage [A] is independent of their parents’ will. [B] needs careful valuation in advance. [C] costs a small fortune of their family. [D] is usually facilitated by a mediator.
  29. The request of the groom’s parents may be turned down unless [A] they manage to hire a qualified mediator. [B] they make their best choice at all risks. [C] the young woman’s parents want to lose face. D] the bride’ s parents dare to offend the mediator.
  30. It may be the best way to resolve a conflict for [A] the entire community to offer support. [B] a mediator to be identified by both sides. [C] the outcome of mediation to be acceptable. [D] a valid excuse to spare both sides’ blushes.
resources unavailable in people’s closest, local groups. Nonetheless, strong social ties are the relationships that generally buffer people from life’s stresses and that lead to better social and psychological outcomes. People receive most of their social support from people with whom they are in most frequent contact, and bigger favors come from those with stronger ties. Generally, strong personal ties are supported by physical proximity. The Internet potentially reduces the importance of physical proximity in creating and maintaining networks of strong social ties. Unlike face-to-face interaction or even the telephone, the Internet offers opportunities for social interactions that do not depend on the distance between parties. People often use the Internet to keep up with those with whom they have preexisting relationships. But they also develop new relationships on-line. Most of these new relationships are weak. MUDs, newsgroups, and chat rooms put people in contact with a pool of new groups, but these on-line “mixers” are typically organized around specific topics, or activities, and rarely revolve around local community and close family and friends. Whether a typical relationship developed on-line becomes as strong as a typical traditional relationship and whether having on-line relationships changes the number or quality of a person’s total social involvements are open questions. Empirical evidence about the impact of the Internet on relationships and social involvement is sparse. Many authors have debated whether the Internet will promote community or undercut it. Much of this discussion has been speculative and anecdotal, or is based on cross-sectional data with small samples.

  31. The text is mainly about [A] the dominance of interpersonal communication. Text Three [B] strong and weak personal ties over the Internet. [C] the difference between old and modern relationships.
The Internet, like its network predecessors, has turned out to be far more social than television, and in this respect, the impact of the Internet may be more like that of the telephone than of TV. Our research has shown that interpersonal communication is the dominant use of the Internet at home. That people use the Internet mainly for interpersonal communication, however, does not imply that their social interactions and relationships on the Internet are the same as their traditional social interactions an
 

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