年考研英语( 2011 年考研英语(一)真题完整版 20
  11】【我要纠错 我要纠错】 2011-1-15 11:43 腾讯考研 【大 中 小】【我要纠错】
年考研真题答案解析专题入口>>> 2011 年考研真题答案解析专题入口>>> 考研英语( 2011 考研英语(一)真题完整版参考答案 Section I Use of English Directions: Directions: word Read the following text. Choose the best word s) for each numbered ( [A], [B], points) blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily health.” contrary, exercise precious to health.” But __1some claims to the contrary, little laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness Laughter __2shortdoes __2short-term changes in the function of the heart and its vessels, blood vessels, 3_ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because __4__, hard laughter is difficult to __4__, a good laugh is unlikely to have benefits way, say, __5 benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does. __6__, them, __6__, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, __7__, does, laughter apparently accomplishes the __7__, studies dating
1930‘ muscles, back to the 1930‘s indicate that laughter__8 muscles, decreasing for muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the laugh dies down. Such bodily reaction might conceivably help _9__the effects of Anyway, psychological stress. Anyway, the act of laughing probably does feedback, produce other types of 10 feedback, that improve an individual emotional emotion, ‘s emotional state. __11one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry 13they are sad but they become sad when the tears begin to flow. tears, Although sadness also 14 tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow __15 muscular responses. In an experiment 19
  88, published in 19
  88,social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University wü either of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to __16 a pen either with teeththeir teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile ? or with their lips, a( lips, would p which roduce a(n) __17 expression. Those forced to exercise their enthusiastically to funny catoons than did those frown, that whose months were contracted in a frown, 19 that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around __20__ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
  1.[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like

  2.[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce [B]boosting
  3.[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining
  4.[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe
  5.[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable
  6.[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief
  7.[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected
  8.[A]hardens
  8.[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes
  9.[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance
  10.[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal
  11.[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for
  12.[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at
  13.[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because
  14.[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses
  15.[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond
  16.[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold

  17.[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent [C]turned
  18.[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted
  19.[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing
  20.[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each below [A], [B], text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER points) SHEET
  1. (40 points) Text 1 The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert classicalas its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 20
  09. part, favorable, For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. last! Tommasini, sober“Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided Hooray! classicalclassical-music critic.
such surprise, One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, Gilbert‘ Times, Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert‘s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable him.” next conductor about him.” As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Boulez, Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise. part, conductor For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor sure, or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety compositions, of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Hall, else, Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral shelf, music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes. Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute time, attention, for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, artpublic, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must houses, troupes, companies, compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, museums, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, cheap, everywhere, very available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality
today‘ performances; moreover, consumed” than today‘s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” listener’ at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the the institution of the traditional classical concert. One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert noted: Ross, ‘s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classicalcritic, described classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable different, of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization.” difference? organization.” But what will be the nature of that difference? orchestra’ Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Philharmonic succeed, Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change America‘ the relationship between America‘s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract. Gilbert‘
  21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert‘s appointment has [A]incurred criticism. [B]raised suspicion. [C]received [C]received acclaim. [D]aroused curiosity.

  22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is [A]influential. [B]modest. [C]respectable. [D]talented.
  23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers performances. [A]ignore the expenses of live performances. [B]reject most kinds of recorded performances. [C]exaggerate the variety of live performances. [D]overestimate the value of live performances. text,
  24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings? recordings? [A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality. [B]They are easily accessible to the general public. [C]They help improve the quality of music.
[D]They have only covered masterpieces. Gilbert‘ Philharmonic,
  25. Regarding Gilbert‘s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels [A]doubtful. [B]enthusiastic. [C]confident. [D]puzzled. Text 2 August, When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking vague excuses, his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he company.” was leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company.” Broadcasting decision, his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Services Group, Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September
  29. McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear
message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn ‘t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, don’ nod pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations. hold, As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards had, stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As up, the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders. quit The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:“I can Carey: think I’ ‘t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed first.” me to look at sitting CEOs first.” haven‘ Those who jumped without a job haven‘t always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, to age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became
Internethead of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. recruiters Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs it‘ or to leave a bad one. “The traditional rule was it‘s safer to stay are, that’ inverted, one where you are, but that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says one who‘ who’ headhunter. “The people who‘ve been hurt the worst are those who’ long.” ve stayed too long.” departure,
  26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being [A]arrogant. [B]frank. [C]self[C]self-centered. [D]impulsive.
  2, executives‘
  27. According to Paragraph
  2, senior executives‘ quitting may be spurred by [A]their expectation of better financial status.
[B]their need to reflect on their private life. [C]their strained relations with the boards. [D]their pursuit of new career goals. poached”
  3,
  4)
  28. The word “poached” (Line
  3, Paragraph
  4) most probably means [A]approved of. [B]attended to. [C]hunted for. [D]guarded against.
  29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that [A]top performers used to cling to their posts. out[B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated. [C]top performers care more about reputations. [D]it‘ [D]it‘s safer to stick to the traditional rules.
  30. Which of the following is the best title for the text? text?
[A]CEOs: Go? [A]CEOs: Where to Go? [B]CEOs: the Up? [B]CEOs: All the Way Up? [C]Top Managers Jump without a Net [D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers Text 3 The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what paid” you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media ? such as commercials television commercials and print advertisements ? still play a major role, role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. owned” Consumers passionate about a product may create “owned” media by esending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media. Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media , such marketers act as the initiator users‘ responses. cases, marketer’ for users‘ responses. But in some cases, one marketer’s owned media marketer‘ instance, become another marketer‘s paid media ? for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other
organizations eorganizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that infancy, environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for Johnson, exa
 

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