2011 年考研英语(二)试题及答案
Section I
cloze
"The Internet affords anonymity to its users ? a boon to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cybercrime that has 1 across the Web. Can privacy be preserved 2 bringing a semblance of safety and security to a world that seems increasingly 3 ? Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation’s cyberczar, offered the Obama government a 4 to make the Web a safer place ? a “voluntary identify” system that would be the high-tech 5 of a physical key, fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled 6 one. The system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential 7 to a specific computer, and would authenticate users at a range of online services. The idea is to 8 a federation of private online identify systems. Users could 9 which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver’s license 10 by the government. Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to 11 just once but use many different services. 12 , the approach would create a “walled garden” in safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of community. Mr. Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with 14 ,trusting the identities of the infrastructure that the transaction runs 15 .'" Still, the administration’s plan has 16 privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such an initiative push toward what would 17 be a license” mentality. The plan has also been greeted with 18 by some experts, who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” would still leave much of the Internet 19 .They argue that should be 20 to register and identify themselves, in drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads.
  1.A.swept B. skipped C. walked D. ridden
  2.A.for B. within C. while D. though
  3.A.careless B. lawless C. pointless D. helpless
  4.A.reason B. reminder C. compromise D. proposal
  5.A.information B. interference C. entertainment D. equivalent
  6.A.by B. into C. from D. over
  7.A.linked B. directed C. chained D. compared
  8.A.dismiss B. discover C. create D. improve
1

  9.A.recall B. suggest C. select D. realize
  10.A.released B. issued C. distributed D. delivered
  11.A.carry on B. linger on C. set in D. log in
  12.A.In vain B. In effect C. In return D. In contrast
  13.A.trusted B. modernized C. thriving D. competing
  14.A.caution B. delight C. confidence D. patience
  15.A.on B. after C. beyond D. across
  16.A.divided B. disappointed C. protected D. united
  17.A.frequently B. incidentally C. occasionally D. eventually
  18.A.skepticism B. tolerance C. indifference D. enthusiasm
  19.A.manageable B. defendable C. vulnerable D. invisible
  20.A.invited B. appointed C. allowed D. forced 2011 考研英语(二)阅读真题 第4篇
WILL the European Union make it? The question would have sounded outlandish not long ago. Now even the project’s greatest cheerleaders talk of a continent facing a “Bermuda triangle” of debt, demographic decline and lower growth. As well as those chronic problems, the EU faces an acute crisis in its economic core, the 16 countries that use the single currency. Markets have lost faith that the euro zone’s economies, weaker or stronger, will one day converge thanks to the discipline of sharing a single currency, which denies uncompetitive stragglers the quick fix of devaluation. Yet the debate about how to save Europe’s single currency from disintegration is stuck. It is stuck because the euro zone’s dominant powers, France and Germany, agree on the need for greater harmonisation within the euro zone, but disagree about what to harmonise. Germany thinks the euro must be saved by stricter rules on borrowing, spending and competitiveness, backed by quasi-automatic sanctions for governments that stray. These might include threats to freeze EU funds for poorer regions and EU mega-projects, and even the suspension of a country’s voting rights in EU ministerial councils. It insists that economic co-ordination should involve all 27 members of the EU club, among whom there is a small majority for free-market liberalism and economic rigour; in the inner core alone, Germany fears, a small majority favour French dirigisme. A “southern” camp headed by France wants something different: “European economic government” within an inner core of euro-zone members. Translated, that means politicians meddling in monetary policy and a system of redistribution from richer to poorer members, via cheaper borrowing for governments through common Eurobonds or outright fiscal transfers. Finally, figures close to the French government have murmured, euro-zone members should agree to some fiscal and social harmonisation: eg, curbing competition in corporate-tax rates or labour costs.
2
It is too soon to write off the EU. It remains the world’s largest trading block. At its best, the European project is remarkably liberal: built around a single market of 27 rich and poor countries, its internal borders are far more porous to goods, capital and labour than any comparable trading area. It is an ambitious attempt to blunt the sharpest edges of globalisation, and make capitalism benign.
  36.The EU is faced with to many problems that A it has more or less lost faith in markets B even its supporters begin to fell concerned C some of its member countries plan to X curo D it intends to deny the possibility of devaluation 37 The X over the EU’s single currency is stuck because the X pomery A are X for the leading position B are busy X their own crises Cfall to reach an agreement on harmonisation D disagreement on the steps towards disintegration 38 To solve the cure problem ,Gremanyproposed that A EU funds for poor regions be X B stricter regulations be impossal C only core members be involved in ecomomic X D voting rights of the EU members be guaranteed 39 The French proposal of handling the crisis implies that A X countries are more likely to get finds B monetary policy will be applied to poor countries C X will be readily available to rich countries D rich countries will busically control Eurobonds 40 X the future of the EU,the author seems to feel A pesaimistic B desperate Cconeceiled D hopeful Section II Directions:(7 选
  5) In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questio ns (41-
  45), choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in a ny of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) Such a move could affect firms such as McDonald’s, which sponsors th e youth coaching scheme run by the Football Association. Fast-food chains should also stop offering “inducements” such as toys, cute animals and m obile phone credit to lure young customers, Stephenson said.
3
Professor Dinesh Bhugra, president of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, said: “If children are taught about the impact that food has on their grow th, and that some things can harm, at least information is available up fro nt.” He also urged councils to impose “fast-food-free zones” around school and hospitals-areas within which takeaways cannot open. A Department of Health spokesperson said: “We need to create a new vision for public health where all of society works together to get healthy and live longer. This includes creating a new ‘responsibility deal’ with busin ess, built on social responsibility, not state regulation. Later this year, we will publish a white paper setting out exactly how we will achieve this.” The food industry will be alarmed that such senior doctors back such r adical moves, especially the call to use some of the tough tactics that hav e been deployed against smoking over the last decade.
[A] “fat taxes” should be imposed on fast-f ood producers such as McDonald’s.
  41.Andrew Lansley held that [B] the government should ban fast-food o utlets in the neighborhood of schools.
  42.Terence Stephenson agreed that
  43.Jamie Oliver seemed to believe that [C] “lecturing” was an effective way to imp rove school lunches in England. [D] cigarette-style warnings should be intro duced to children about the dangers of a p oor diet.
  44.Dinesh Bhugra suggested that [E] the producers of crisps and candies co uld contribute significantly to the Change4Life campaign.
  45.A Department of Health Spokesperson propsed that [F] parents should set good examples for t heir children by keeping a healthy diet at home. [G] the government should strengthen the sense of responsibility among businesses.
Section Ⅲ Translation
  46. Directions: In this section there is a text in English. Translate it into Chinese. Writ e your translation on ANSWER SHEET
  2. (15 points) Who would have thought that, globally, the IT industry produces about the same volume of greenhouse gases as the world’s airlines do roug hly 2 percent of all CO2 emissions? Many everyday tasks take a surprising toll on the environment. A Goo gle search can leak between
  0.2 and
  7.0 grams of CO2, depending on ho
4
w many attempts are needed to get the “right” answer. To deliver results to its users quickly, then, Google has to maintain vast data centres around the world, packed with powerful computers. While producing large quantiti es of CO2, these computers emit a great deal of heat, so the centres nee d to be well air-conditioned, which uses even more energy. However, Google and other big tech providers monitor their efficiency closely and make improvements. Monitoring is the first step on the road to reduction , but there is much more to be done, and not just by big comp anies. Section IV Writing Part A 47 Directions: Suppose your cousin Li Ming has just been admitted to a university. W rite him/her a letter to
  1) congratulate him/her, and
  2) give him/her suggestions on how to get prepared for university life. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET
  2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Zhang Wei” instead. Do not write the address. (10 points)
2011 年考研英语(二)试题客观题部分参考答案
1-5 ACBDD BBDAA G 6-10 BACCA 26-30DBCBB 11-15 DBACA 31-35BDCDB 16-20 CDACD 21-25 36-40DCBAC 41-45EDCF
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