2011 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(
Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and ma rk [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious t o health.” But __1some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influe nce on physical fitness Laughter does __2short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, 3_ heart rate and oxygen consumption But bec ause hard laughter is difficult to __4__, a good laugh is unlikely to have __5 b enefits the way, say, walking or jogging does. __6__, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter appar ently accomplishes the __7__, studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that laugh ter__8 muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the laugh di es down. Such bodily reaction might conceivably help _9__the effects of psychological stress. Anyway, the act of laughing probably does produce other types of 10 feed back, that improve an individual’s emotional state. __11one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 physical reactions. It was argu ed at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry 13they are sad b ut they become sad when the tears begin to flow. Although sadness also 14 tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow __15 muscular responses. In an experiment published in 1988,social psycholog ist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to __16 a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile ? or with their li ps, which would produce a(n) __17 expression. Those forced to exercise their e nthusiastically to funny catoons than did those whose months were contracted in a frown, 19 that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the ot her way around __20__ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
  1.[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like
  2.[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce
  3.[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining
  4.[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe
  5.[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable
  6.[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief

  7.[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected
  8.[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes
  9.[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance
  10.[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal
  11.[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for
  12.[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at
  13.[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because
  14.[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses
  15.[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond
  16.[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold
  17.[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent
  18.[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted
  19.[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing
  20.[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40 points) Text 1 The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music d irector has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden annou ncement of his appointment in 20
  09. For the most part, the response has been fav orable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic. One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is tha t Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’ s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint prais e. For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear int eresting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes.
Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performan ce are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, availabl e everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live perfor mances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s c hoosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a c risis in the institution of the traditional classical concert. One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music t hat is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been wi dely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organi zation.” But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orche stra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.
  21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert’s appointment has [A]incurred criticism. [B]raised suspicion. [C]received acclaim. [D]aroused curiosity.
  22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is [A]influential. [B]modest. [C]respectable. [D]talented.
  23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers [A]ignore the expenses of live performances. [B]reject most kinds of recorded performances. [C]exaggerate the variety of live performances. [D]overestimate the value of live performances.
  24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings? [A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality. [B]They are easily accessible to the general public. [C]They help improve the quality of music. [D]They have only covered masterpieces.
  25. Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels [A]doubtful. [B]enthusiastic.
[C]confident. [D]puzzled. Text 2 When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his expla nation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my goal of runnin g a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGee say s. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Fi nancial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September
  29. McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what ki nd of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside worl d about his aspirations. And McGee isn’t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executiv es at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronoun cements cloud their reputations. As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willin g to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 2 3% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspi ring leaders. The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. F or years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attract ive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior p artner Dennis Carey:”I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.” Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly. Ell en Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a C EO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities e xchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisi s has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. “The tr aditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are, but that’s been fundamentally in verted,” says one headhunter. “The people who’ve been hurt the worst are those w ho’ve stayed too long.”
  26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as
being [A]arrogant. [B]frank. [C]self-centered. [D]impulsive.
  27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives’ quitting may be spurred by [A]their expectation of better financial status. [B]their need to reflect on their private life. [C]their strained relations with the boards. [D]their pursuit of new career goals.
  28. The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph
  4) most probably means [A]approved of. [B]attended to. [C]hunted for. [D]guarded against.
  29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that [A]top performers used to cling to their posts. [B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated. [C]top performers care more about reputations. [D]it’s safer to stick to the traditional rules.
  30. Which of the following is the best title for the text? [A]CEOs: Where to Go? [B]CEOs: All the Way Up? [C]Top Managers Jump without a Net [D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers Text 3 The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media ? such as television commercials and prin t advertisements ? still play a major role, companies today can exploit many altern ative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered w ith its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of factors bey ond conventional paid media. Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media , such marketers act as the initiator for users’ responses. But in some cases, one marketer’s owned media become another marketer’s paid media ? for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organ
izations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This tre nd ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Joh nson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that pro motes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, t he presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies o pportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ mar keting, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned. The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passi onate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, f or instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the busin esses that originally created them. If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott pro ducts, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the co mpany’s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curv e has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated socialmedia response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg.
  31.Consumers may create “earned” media when they are [A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites. [B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them. [C] eager to help their friends promote quality products. [D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products. 32
 

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