3.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语。 (
  1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如: We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style rather than in a personal style. For the new country to survive, let alone for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required. (
  2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。 如:At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials. 十、代词
  1.与所指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致 如: Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect. It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point. Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.
  2.that 的指代作用 that 指代不可数名词和单数可数名词 (如是复数,用 those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构 中的 that of。 eg: Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both. No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.
  3.one 的指代作用 one 指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为 ones。the one 指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如: A good writer is one who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.
  4.do 的替代作用 do 代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。如: For him to be re’elected, what is essential is not that his policy works, but that the public believe that it does. 十一、主谓一致问题 主谓一致是指主语与谓语在数上要一致。把握主谓一致问题,考生主要解决的是对不同结构的主语单复 数的认定,进而选择适当的谓语。
  1.主谓一致常出现在主谓倒装结构中。 如: Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees. Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been improvement in the facilities.
  2.主语与谓语之间有定语从句或其他结构修饰,所以距离较远,考生易误认主语。 如: The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the quality of the products.
  3.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。 如:Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood. There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.
  4.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。 如:Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her. To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.
  5.主语带有(together/along)with, such as, as well as, accompanied by, including, rather than
等附加成分, 谓语的数不受附加成分的影响。 如:The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations.
  7.某些固定结构中谓语的数: a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 a number of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数 the number of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数 the majority of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数 each/every +可数名词单数 谓语用单数 neither/either of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数 more than one +可数名词单数 谓语用单数 one and a half +可数名词复数 谓语用单数 the greater part of a large proportion of 50% of 谓语的数与 of 后面的名词一致 one third of plenty of the rest of 十二、倒装结构 倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前、谓语在后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一部分移到主语之 前。倒装是一种修辞手段,目的是为了强调。倒装分为部分倒装和全部倒装,考试多为部分倒装。考生 应掌握什么情况下需要倒装。
  1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装 never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。 如: Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on. Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.
  2.以 only 修饰状语开头的句子 ,句子的主谓要部分倒装 only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, only because。 如: Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.
  3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装 often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time。 So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer 如: camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.
  4.以下列副词开头的句子,句子的主谓要全部倒装 (
  1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词: out, down, in, up, away, on。 如:Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him. (
  2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then。 如:Now is your turn. There goes the bell. (
  3)有时主语较长, 为了使句子平衡, 避免头重脚轻, 主谓要全部倒装。 这种情况多出现在主系表结构中 。 如: Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life. In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.



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