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2011 考研英语真题完整版
Section I Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise Use of English
__2short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood
emotional state. __11one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry 13they are sad but they become sad when the tears begin to flow. Although sadness also 14 tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow __15 muscular responses. In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to __16 a pen either with
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌

other types of 10 feedback, that improve an individual’s


psychological stress. Anyway, the act of laughing probably does produce

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Such bodily reaction might conceivably help _9__the effects of

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for up to 45 minutes after the laugh dies down.
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1930’s indicate that laughter__8 muscles, decreasing muscle tone
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laughter apparently accomplishes the __7__, studies dating back to the
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__6__, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does,
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benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does.
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laughter is difficult to __4__, a good laugh is unlikely to have __5
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vessels, 3_ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard

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probably has little influence on physical fitness Laughter does
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precious to health.” But __1some claims to the contrary, laughing

聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌
their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile ? or with their lips, which would produce a(n) __17 expression. Those forced to exercise their smiling muscles 18 more exuberantly to funny cartons than did those whose mouths were contracted in a frown, 19 that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around __20__ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
  1.[A]among
  2.[A]reflect
  3.[A]stabilizing
  4.[A]transmit
  5.[A]measurable
  6.[A]In turn
  7.[A]opposite
  8.[A]hardens
  9.[A]aggravate [B]except [B]demand [B]boosting [B]sustain [C]despite [C]indicate [C]impairing [C]evaluate [D]like [D]produce [D]determining [D]observe [D]renewable

  12.[A]with
  13.[A]unless
  14.[A]exhausts
  15.[A]into
  16.[A]fetch


  11.[A]Except for


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  10.[A]physical

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[B]generate
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[B]weakens
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[B]impossible
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[C]average

[B]In fact
[C]In addition
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[B]manageable
[C]affordable

[C]tightens [C]moderate
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[D]In brief [D]expected [D]relaxes [D]enhance
[B]mental
[C]subconscious [D]internal [C]Due to [D]at [D]because [D]suppresses [D]beyond [D]hold [D]As for
[B]According to [C]in [C]if

[B]on [B]until [B]follows [B]from [B]bite
[C]precedes [C]towards [C]pick
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌

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聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌

  17.[A]disappointed [B]excited
  18.[A]adapted
  19.[A]suggesting
  20.[A]Eventually [B]catered [B]requiring
[C]joyful [C]turned
[D]indifferent [D]reacted [D]supposing [D]Conversely
[C]mentioning
[B]Consequently [C]Similarly
Section II Part A Directions:
Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by
One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise. For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting
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wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic.
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the response has been favorable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!”
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the sudden announcement of his appointment in 20
  09. For the most part,
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music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since
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The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next
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Text 1

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(40 points)

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choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1.

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聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌
103f ositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes. Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere,
performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of
described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into
must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.
  21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert’s appointment has [A]incurred criticism. [B]raised suspicion. [C]received acclaim.

will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they

聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌


nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire
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“a markedly different, more vibrant organization.” But what will be the

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new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has
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new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in
an
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One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive
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classical concert.
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has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional

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the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings

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and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live

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but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌
[D]aroused curiosity.
  22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is [A]influential. [B]modest. [C]respectable. [D]talented.
[D]overestimate the value of live performances.
  24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?
[D]They have only covered masterpieces.
  25. Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels [A]doubtful. [B]enthusiastic. [C]confident.
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌


[C]They help improve the quality of music.


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[B]They are easily accessible to the general public.

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[A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.
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[C]exaggerate the variety of live performances.

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[B]reject most kinds of recorded performances.

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[A]ignore the expenses of live performances.

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  23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers

聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌
[D]puzzled. Text 2 When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking
to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn’t alone. In
turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders. The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:”I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌



more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO

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As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be

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pronouncements cloud their reputations.
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business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague
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executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent
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scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure,
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with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards

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recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit

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on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message
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McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect

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which named him CEO and chairman on September
  29.

for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group,
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌
Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to
but that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. “The
[D]impulsive.
[A]their expectation of better financial status. [B]their need to reflect on their private life. [C]their strained relations with the boards. [D]their pursuit of new career goals.
  28.The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph
  4) most probably means [A]approved of.
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌


by



  27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives’ quitting may be spurred
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[C]self-centered.
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[A]arrogant.
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described as being
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  26.When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be
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people who’ve been hurt the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.”

9年 品

leave a bad one. “The traditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are,
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌
[B]attended to. [C]hunted for. [D]guarded against.
  29.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that [A]top performers used to cling to their posts. [B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.
[B]CEOs: All the Way Up?
The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media ? such as television commercials and print advertisements ? still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.


Text 3
聚焦教育?湖北考研网 91kaoyan.net 专做武汉地区考研专业课辅导 9 年品牌


?湖

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[D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers
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[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net
an
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[A]CEOs: Where to Go?

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  30. Which of the following is th
 

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