2011 年硕士研究生入学考试 2011 英语二 真题及参考答案 Section I Use of English
Directions Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has 1 Web. Can privacy be preserved increasingly 4 3 ? 2 bringing safety and security to a world that seems across the
Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation’s cyber-czar, offered the federal government a to make the Web a safer place-a “voluntary trusted identity” system that would be the 5 of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled 7 6 one. The to a specific computer .and 9 high-tech
system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential would authenticate users at a range of online services. The idea is to 8
a federation of private online identity systems. User could
which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver’s license 10 by the government. 11 just once but use many different services. 13 community. Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these“single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to 12 .the approach would create a “walled garden” n cyberspace, with safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of a organizations can complete online transactions with and the identities of the infrastructure Still, the administration’s plan has what would 17 15 16 14 Mr. Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which “individuals and ,trusting the identities of each other which the transaction runs”. privacy rights activists. Some applaud the
approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward be a compulsory Internet “drive’s license” mentality. 18 by some computer security experts, who 20 to register and identify The plan has also been greeted with the Internet 19
worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of .They argue that all Internet users should be themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads. 1 . 2 . A.for B.within C.while D.though A.swept B.skipped C.walked D.ridden
5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 1 0 . 1 1 . 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 5 . 1 6 . 1 7 . 1 8 . 1 9
A.informati on A.by A.linked A.dismiss A.recall A.relcased
B.interferen ce B.into B.directed B.discover B.suggest B.issued
C.entertain ment C.from C.chained C.create C.select C.distribute d
D.equivale nt D.over D.compare d D.improve D.realize D.delivered
A.carry on
B.linger on
C.set in
D.log in
A.In vain
B.In effect
C.In return
D.In contrast
B.moderniz ed
D.competin g
C.confiden ce
B.disappoin ted
A.frequestl y A.skepticis m A.managea ble
B.incidenta lly B.relerance
C.occasion ally C.indiffere nce
D.eventuall y D.enthusias m D.invisible
B.defendab le
C.vulnerabl e
6~10 BACCB Section II
11~15 DBACA
16~20 ADACD
Reading Comprehension
Part A
D irections: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40points)
Text 1
Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs’s board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman’s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass unremarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmo ns had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said. Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm’s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive’s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises. The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 20
  04. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those “surprise” disappearances by directors under the age of
  70. They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they “trade up.” Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms. But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus.

  22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be [A]generous investors [B]unbiased executives [C]share price forecasters [D]independent advisers

  23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director’s surprise departure, the firm is likely to [A]become more stable [B]report increased earnings [C]do less well in the stock market [D]perform worse in lawsuits
  24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm [D]will decline incentives from the firm
  25. The author’s attitude toward the role of outside directors is [A]permissive [B]positive [C]scornful [D]critical TEXT 1 是说 profits profits。 helpful 22 C。细节题:原文中出现 outside directors 有几处,helpful but less biased advi sor
  22.C sor, D 但是 B 选项用的是 executive, 拼凑答案,D 选项也是一样。最后一句 weathered their own crises 对应 forecasters forecasters。 23 C。细节题:原文是若干个并列, stock is likely to perform worse 对应答案, 迷惑
  23.C 选项是 B,但是主语不一致 20% probability 不是 earnings 20%是 earnings。 24 A。推理题:原文对应 firms who want to …..
  24.A ..说想留住 outside director 就是增加 incentive incentive。 25 B。态度题:文章各个段落都说 outside director 的方面。因此是 positive
  25.B positive。 参考答案 21 A 。
  21.A 细节题: 原文第 1 段,倒数第 3 行的 how could …? 直接提到了 bonus payouts 就 could… . . .
Text 2
Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America’s Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers.
of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same. It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 20
  07. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further. Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable. The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business.
  26. By saying “Newspapers like … their own doom” (Lines 3-4, Para.
  1), the author indicates that newspaper . [A]neglected the sign of crisis [B]failed to get state subsidies [C]were not charitable corporations [D]were in a desperate situation
  27. Some newspapers refused delivery to distant suburbs probably because [A]readers threatened to pay less [B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs [C]journalists reported little about these areas [D]subscribers complained about slimmer products
  28. Compared with their American counterparts, Japanese newspapers are much more stable because they . [A]have more sources of revenue [B]have more balanced newsrooms [C]are less dependent on advertising [D]are less affected by readership
  29. What can be inferred from the last paragraph about the current newspaper business? [A]Distinctiveness is an essential feature of newspapers. .
[A]American Newspapers: Struggling for Survival [B]American Newspapers: Gone with the Wind [C]American Newspapers: A Thriving Business [D]American Newspapers: A Hopeless Story TEXT 2 参考答案 26 D。定义题:根据上下文猜句子的含义,后句 American …… ..save newspaper 中出
  26.D American…… ……..save 现了 save 说明前面的观点一定是不好的才 save save,因此选 D 。 27 B.推理题:定位处前一句是 readers are paying more for slimmer newspaper. 因
  27.B 此说明人们多付钱,报纸很薄,节约成本,定位处有 even 表示并列,说明前后 的原因一致都是成本问题。 28 C。推理题:日本美国原文用了对比的方法说广告占得比例不一样,因此问题是广
  28.C 告收入来源。 A
  29. D 。推理题:A 选项中有 essential, 文章中是说 distinctiveness 重要而非必要,有问 D 题,D 选项是文章中 cars and film reviewers have gone. gone.说明由于报纸没有吸引力 而失去读者。 30 A。主旨题:文章分析美国报纸出现的问题,说明要挽救。
Text 3
We tend to think of the decades immediately following World War II as a time of prosperity and growth, with soldiers returning home by the millions, going off to college on the G. I. Bill and lining up at the marriage bureaus. But when it came to their houses, it was a time of common sense and a belief that less could truly be more. During the Depression and the war, Americans had learned to live with less, and that restraint, in combination with the postwar confidence in the future, made small, efficient housing positively stylish. Economic condition was only a stimulus for the trend toward efficient living. The phrase “less is more” was actually first popularized by a German, the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who like other people associated with the Bauhaus, a school of design, emigrated to the United States before World War II and took up posts at American architecture schools. These designers came to exert enormous influence on the course of American architecture, but none more so that Mies. Mies’s signature phrase means that less decoration, properly organized, has more impact that a lot. Elegance, he believed, did not derive from abundance. Like other modern architects, he employed metal, glass and laminated wood-materials that we take for granted today buy that in the 1940s symbolized the future. Mies’s sophisticated presentation masked the fact that the spaces he designed were small and efficient, rather than big and often empty. The apartments in the elegant towers Mies built on Chicago’s Lake Shore Drive, for example, were smaller-two-bedroom units under 1,000 square feet-than those in their older neighbors along the city’s Gold Coast. But they were popular because of their airy glass walls,
The trend toward “less” was not entirely foreign. In the 1930s Frank Lloyd Wright started building more modest and efficient houses-usually around 1,200 square feet-than the spreading two-story ones he had designed in the 1890s and the early 20th century. The “Case Study Houses” commissioned from talented modern architects by California A



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