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In this section you will hear a m ini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ecti tion ill ni- ect ill ect ONC ONLY. While listening, take notes on the im portant points. Your notes will not be m ONLY LY. ile lis por poi ill arked, but you will need them to com plete a gap-filling task after the m ini-lecture. When ill eed gap-fi lin ect the lecture is over, you will be given two m inutes to check your notes, and another ten ect ver ill ven nut eck minutes to com plete the gap -filling task minu nut gap-f lin -fi on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Som e of the gaps m ay require a m axim um of T HREE words. Make EET ONE REE sure the word(s) you fill in is(are) both gramm atically and sem antically acceptable. You m ay refer ill bot tic lly tic lly ccep abl to your notes while com pleting the task. Use the blank sheet for note -taking. ile omp tin eet aki
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen caref ully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO. Question 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds tion bas ill ven eco to answer each of the following five questions. llo tio Now listen to the interview. lis

  1. According to Dr. Harley, what makes language learning more difficult after a certain age? A. Differences betw een tw o languages. B. Declining capacity to learn syntax. C. Lack of time available. D. Absence of motivation.

What does the example of Czech speakers show? A. It s natural for language learners to make errors. B. Differences between languages cause difficulty. C. There exist differences between English and Czech. D. Difficulty stems from either difference or similarity.

Which of the follow ing methods does NOT advocate speaking? A. The traditional method. B. The audiolingual D. The direct method. method. C. The immersion method.

Which hypothesis deals with the role of language knowledge in the learning process? A. The acquisition and learning distinction hypothesis. B. The comprehensible input hypothesis. C. The monitor hypothesis. D. The active filter hypothesis.

Which of the follow ing topics is NOT discussed during the interview? A. Causes of language learning difficulties. B. Differences between mother tongue and a second language. C. Theoretical conceptualization of second language learning. D. Pedagogical implementation of second language teaching.
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen caref ully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO. Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item , you will tion bas llo ite ill be given 10 ven seconds to answer the question. eco tio Now listen to the news. lis

  6. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT? A. Greyhound is Britain s largest bus and train operator. are limited. B. Currently Greyhound routes in Britain
C. The coach starts from London every hour. D. Passengers are offered a variety of services.
Questions 7 and 8 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given tio bas llo ite ill ven 20 seconds to answer the questions. eco tio Now listen to the news. lis

  7. What does the news item say about the fires in Greec e? A. Fires only occurred near the Greek capital. B. Fires near the capital caused casualties. C. Fires near the capital were the biggest. D. Fires near the capital were soon under control.
  8. According to the news, what measure did authorities take to fight the fires? A. Residents were asked to vacate their homes. B. Troops were brought in to help the firefighter. C. Air operations and water drops continued overnight. D. Another six fire engines joined the firefighting operation.
Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item , you will be given tio bas llo ite ill ven 20 seconds to answer the questions. eco tio Now listen to the news. lis

  9. Which of the follow ing is NOT mentioned as a cause of the current decline the Mexican economy? A. Fewer job opportunities in Mexico. B. Strong ties w ith the U.S. economy. C. Decline in tourism. D. Decline in tax revenues.
  10. Drop in remittances from abroad is mainly due to A. declining oil production. B. the outbreak of the H1N1 flu. C. the declining GDP in Mexico. D. the economic downturn in the U.S. in
In this se ction there are four reading pass ag es followed by a total of 20 m ultiple -choice questions. tion adi pass ssag llo tip tio Read the pass ages and then m ark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEE T T WO. pass age ssag tion
TE XT A TEX Whenever we could, Joan and I took refuge in the streets of Gibraltar. The Englishman s home is his castle because he has not much choice. There is now here to sit in the streets of England, not even, after tw ilight, in the public gardens. The climate, very often, odes not even permit him to walk outside. Naturally, he stays indoors and creates a cocoon of comfort. That was the w ay w e lived in Leeds. These southern people, on the other hand, look outw ards. The Gibraltar ian home is, typically, a small and crow ded apartment up several flights of dark and dirty stairs. In it, one, tw o or even three old people share a few ill0 lit rooms with the young family. Once he has eaten, changed his clothes, embraced his w ife, kissed his children and his southern man at home. He hurries out, taking even his parents, there is nothing to keep the breakfast coffee at his local bar. He
comes home late for his afternoon meal after an appetitive hour at his café He sleeps for an hour, . dresses, goes out again and stays out until late at night. His wife does not miss him, for she is out, too ? at the market in the morning and in the afternoon sitting with other mothers , babyminding in the sun. The usual Gibraltarian home has of our no sitting-room, living-room or lounge.
The parlour
and and drinking ,
wa ste
such-like furniture are unknow n. There are no bookshelves, because there are no books. Talking
as well as eating, are done on hard chairs round the dining-table, between a sideboard decorated with the best glasses and an inevitab le d isplay cabinet full of family treasures, photographs and souvenirs. The elaborate chandelier over this family. ?Hearth and village, and home makes very little sense in Gibraltar. One s home is one s tow n or table proclaims it as the hub of the household and of the
one s health is the sunshine. Our northern towns are dormitories w ith cubicles, by comparison. When we congregate ? in the churches it used to be, now in the cinema, say, impersonally, or at public meetings, formally ? w e are scarcely ever man to man. Only in our pubs can you find the truly gregarious and c ommunal spirit surviving, and in England even the pubs are divided along class lines. Along this Mediterranean coast, home is only a refuge and a retreat. The people live together in the open air Gibraltar, ? in the street, we its had with market-place. ever Dow n here, there is In crow ded a far stronger and feeling of community than know n. c ircumscribed
complicated inter-marriages, its identity of interest, its surviving sense of tow n with all the organizat ion of a state, w ith Viceroy
siege, one can see and feel an integrated society. To live in a tiny ( 总督), Premier,
Parliament, Press and Pentagon, all in miniature, all within arm s reach, is an intensive course in civics. In such an environment, nothing can be hidden, for better or for w orse. One s successes are seen and recognized; one failures are immediately exposed. Social consciousness is at its strongest,
w ith the result behavior, towards
a constant with all
firm is
tow ards
courtesy and kindness. Gibraltar, of places.
its faults,
the friendliest and most tolerant
Straight from the cynical anonymity of a big city, look
w e luxuriated
in its
happy personalism. We
back on it, like all its exiled sons and daughters, with true affection.
  11. Which of the follow ing best explains the differences in w ays of living between the English and the Gibraltarians? A. The family structure. B. Religious C. The climate D. Eating habit.
  12. The italicized part in the third paragraph implies that belief.
A. English working-class homes are similar to Gibraltarian ones. B. English working-class homes have spacious sitting-rooms. C. English working-class homes waste a lot of space. D. the English working-class parlour is intolerable in Gibraltar.
  13. We learn from the description of the Gibraltarian home that it is A. modern. B. luxurious. C. stark. D. simple.
  14. There is a much stronger sense of togetherness B. survival C. identity D. leisure
  15. According to the passage, people in Gibraltar tend to be will-behaved because of the following EXCEPT A. the entirety of the state structure. B. constant pressure from the state. C. the small size of the town. D. transparency of occurrences. TE XT B TEX For office innovators, the unrealized dream of the “paperless” office is a classic example of high-tech hubris (傲慢). Today s office drone is drowning in more paper than ever before. among the Gibraltarians. A.
But after decades of hype, American offices may finally be losing the ir paper obsession. The demand for paper used to outstrip the grow th of the US to such for economy, but the past tw o or factors as advances be in three years have seen a marked slowdown in sales ? despite a healthy economic scene. Analysts attribute the digital databases and communication systems. Escaping but an easy affair. “Old habits are hard to break.” says Merilyn Dunn, a communications supplies director. “There are some functions that paper serves where a screen display doesn t work. Those functions are both its strength and its weakness.” In the early to mid- 90s, a booming economy and improved desktop printers helped boost paper sales by 6 to 7 percent each year. The convenience of desktop printing allow ed office w orkers to indulge in printing anything and everything at very little effort or cost. But now, the growth rate of paper sales in the United States is flattening by about half a percent each year. Betw een 2004 than a 4 is job that for the first and 2005, Ms. Dunn says, plain w hite office paper w ill see less decline
our craving
how ever, w ill
percent growth rate, despite the strong overall economy. A primary reason for the change, says Dunn, time a ever, some in 47 percent the of the of w orkforce paper being entered used the per market “We re worker after computers had already been introduced to offices. finally seeing in the reduction amount
w orkplace.” says John Maine,
vice president of
a pulp and paper
economic consulting firm.
“More information is being transmitted electronically, and more and more people are c omfortable with the information residing only in electronic form without printing multiple backups. ” In addition, orkers ? The advanced art of Mr. Maine po ints to the lackluster employment market for w hite-collar w
the primary driver of office paper consumption ? for the shift in paper usage. real paradigm shift may be in the w ay paper is used. Since the advent of and reliab le office-netw ork systems, data storage has moved aw ay from paper archives. “filing” is disappearing from job descriptions. Much of today s data may
The secretarial never leave its original digital format. The changing attitudes toward paper have finally caught the attention of paper companies, says Richard Harper, thinking, a researcher at Microsoft. “All of a sudden, the paper industry has started
?We need to learn more about the behavioural aspects of paper use, ” he says. “They had never asked, they d just assumed that 70 mill ion sheets would be bought per year as a literal function of economic growth.” To reduce paper capabilit ies. For use, some companies Xerox Corp. is are w orking develop ing to combine electronic digital and paper example, paper: th in dig ital d
isplays that respond to a stylus, like a pen on paper. Notations can be erased or saved digitally. Another id ea, inte lligent paper, comes from Anoto Group. It w ould allow notations made w ith a stylus on a page printed with a special magnetic ink to simultaneously appear on a computer screen.
Even with such technological advances, the improved capabilities of digital storage continue to act against “paperlessness,” argues Paul Saffo, a technology forecaster. In his prophetic and metaphorical 1989 essay, “The Electronic Pi? ( 彩 罐 ),” he suggests that the ata increasing amounts of electronic data necessarily require more paper. The information industry today is like a huge electronic pi? ata, composed of a thin paper crust surrounding an electronic core, ” Mr. Saffo w rote. rapidly. The result is that we are becoming paperless, but we hardly notice at all.



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