2011 年 浙大 考博 英语 听力 选择题 原文 第一篇 Among my experiences as a college president is the all-too-frequent phone call in the night that begins: "One of your students is in the emergency room with alcohol poisoning." The whole country got a similar wake-up call in June when it was reported that alcohol abuse on college campuses is on the rise, especially for women, and that college students drink far more than nonstudents. One statistic showed that college students spend more money on alcohol while in college than on books. Alcohol abuse, although tragic, is but one symptom of a larger campus crisis. A generation has come to college quite fragile, not very secure about who it is, fearful of its lack of identity and without confidence in its future. Many students are ashamed of themselves and afraid of relationships. Students use alcohol as an escape. It's used as an excuse for bad behavior: the insanity defense writ large on campus. This diminished sense of self has caused a growth in racism, sexism, attempted suicide, theft, property-damage and cheating on most campuses. This is not the stuff of most presidents' public conversations. Nor can it be explained away as an "underclass" problem; it is found on our most privileged campuses. It is happening because the generation now entering college has experienced few authentic connections with adults in its lifetime. I call this the "Culture of Neglect," and we ? parents, teachers, professors and administrators ? are the primary architects. It begins at home, where social and economic factors ? such as declining incomes requiring longer work hours ? result in less family time. Young people have been allowed to or must take part-time jobs rather than spending time in school, on homework or with their families. More children and youths are being reared in a vacuum, with television as their only supervisor, and there is little expectation that they learn personal responsibility. Immersed in themselves, they are left to their peers.
  31. The main idea of the first paragraph is that ( ). × [A] it is easy to be a college president [B] a college president has to sit up till midnight [C] alcohol abuse is quite common on campus [D] it is harmful for college students to drink alcohol 正确答案为 C

  32. According to the author, college students turn to alcohol as a(n) ( [A] inspiration [B] stimulation [C] escape [D] relaxation
  33. The word "architects" in Para. 2 can be best replaced by ( [A] artists [B] experts [C] discoverers [D] designers ).
).
× 正确答案为 C
× 正确答案为 D

  34. How do parents react to the "Culture of Neglect"?( ) × 正确答案为 B [A] Parents have lowered their expectations on children. [B] Parents take little care of the growth of their children. [C] Parents spend too much time watching television. [D] Parents fail to cooperate with teachers and administrators.
  35. What is the main problem with the children brought up in the "Culture of Neglect?"( × 正确答案为 C [A] They can't read or write well. [B] They can hardly find a good job. [C] They don't have the sense of responsibility. [D] They are more likely to commit crimes. )
第二篇 Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy (冷漠) and stagnation (呆滞). Too much conflict leads to divisiveness (分裂) and hostility. Moderate levels of conflict, however, can spark creativity and motivate people in a healthy and competitive way. Recent research by Professor Charles R. Schwenk, however, suggests that the optimal level of conflict may be more complex to determine than these simple generalizations. He studied perceptions of conflict among a sample of executives. Some of the executives worked for profit-seeking organizations and others for not-for-profit organizations. Somewhat surprisingly, Schwenk found that opinions about conflict varied systematically as a function of the type of organization. Specifically, managers in not-for-profit organizations strongly believed that conflict was beneficial to their organizations and that it promoted higher quality decision making than might be achieved in the absence of conflict. Managers of for-profit organizations saw a different picture. They believed that conflict generally was damaging and usually led to poor-quality decision making in their organizations. Schwenk interpreted these results in terms of the criteria for effective decision making suggested by the executives. In the profit-seeking organizations, decision-making effectiveness was most often assessed in financial terms. The executives believed that consensus rather than conflict enhanced financial indicators. In the not-for-profit organizations, decision-making effectiveness was defined from the perspective of satisfying constituents. Given the complexities and ambiguities associated with satisfying many diverse constituents executives perceived that conflict led to more considered and acceptable decisions.
  31.In the eyes of the author, conventional opinion on conflict is. A) wrong B) oversimplified C) misleading D) unclear 注:文章第一句
  32.Professor Charles R. Schwenk's research shows. A) the advantages and disadvantages of conflict B) the real value of conflict C) the difficulty in determining the optimal level of conflict D) the complexity of defining the roles of conflict 注:文章第二段
  33.We can learn from Schwenk's research that. A) a person’s view of conflict is influenced by the purpose of his organization B) conflict is necessary for managers of for-profit
organizations C) different people resolve conflicts in different ways D) it is impossible for people to avoid conflict 注:文章第三段
  34.The passage suggests that in for - profit organizations. A) there is no end of conflict B) expression of different opinions is encouraged C) decisions must be justifiable D) success lies in general agreement 注:文章第四段,justifiable 合法化
  35.People working in a not - for - profit organization. A) seem to be difficult to satisfy B) are free to express diverse opinions C) are less effective in making decisions D) find it easier to reach agreement B CAD B 第三篇 Children live in a world in which science has tremendous importance. During their lifetimes it will affect them more and more. In time, many of them will work at jobs that depend heavily on science for example, concerning energy sources, pollution control, highway safety, wilderness conservation, and population growth, and population growth. As taxpayers they will pay for scientific research and exploration. And, as consumers, they will be bombarded (受到轰击) by advertising, much of which is said to be based on science. Therefore, it is important that children, the citizens of the future, become functionally acquainted with science with the process and spirit of science, as well as with its facts and principles. Fortunately, science has a natural appeal for youngsters. They can relate it to so many things
 

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