2011 年职称英语考试综合 A 类真题与答案
一、词汇选项
  1、unclear obscure.模糊不清晰的
  2、greatly ? considerably, greatly 意思为 adv. 相当地;非常地
  3、push-- urge 催促某人做某事 push 推;促进;逼迫
  4、handle?approach 解决问题
  5、caused provoke: 激怒.惹起.驱使,造成
  6、stand= tolerate 忍受、 承受
  7、energeticvigorous 精力充沛的 有活力的
  8、shake ? tremble 颤抖 颤动
  9、praised hail: 招呼.致敬.万岁.向...欢呼
  10、afraid scared 害怕.恐惧
  11、understand grasp 理解,明白
  12、saying remarking 说话,说出
  13、maintain ? assert 主张、声称、断言
  14、continuous ? steady . 稳定的
  15、criticizes finds fault with 挑错,批评 二、阅读判断 The Forbidden Apple New York used to the city that never sleeps. These days it’s the city that never smokes, drinks or does anything naughty (at least not in public). The Big Apple is quickly turning into the Forbidden Apple. If you wanted a glass of wine with your picnic in Central Park, could you have one? No chance. Drinking alcohol in public isn’t allowed. If you decided to feed the birds with the last crumbs 碎屑) your sandwich, you could be arrested. It’s illegal. ( of If you went to a bar for a drink and a cigarette, that would be OK, wouldn’t it? You can’t smoke in public in New York City. What’s going on? Why is the city that used to be so open-minded becoming like this? The mayor of New York is behind it all. He has brought in a whole lot of new laws to stop citizens from doing what they want, when they want. The press are shocked. Even the New York police have joined the argument. They recently spent $100,000 on a “Don’t blame the cop” campaign. One New York police officer said, “We raise money for the city by giving people fines for breaking some very stupid laws. It’s all about money.”www.studyez.com The result is a lot of fines for minor offences. Yoay Kashida, an Israeli tourist, fell asleep on the subway. When he woke up, two police officers fined him because he
has fallen asleep on two seats(you mustn’t use two seats in the subway). Elle and Serge Schroitman were fined for blocking a driveway with their car. It was their own driveway. The angry editor of Vanity Fair magazine, Graydon Carter, says, “Under New York City law it is acceptable to keep a gun in your place of work, but not an empty ashtray.” He should know. The police came to his office and took away his ashtray (烟灰缸). But not all of New York’s inhabitants are complaining. Marcia Dugarry, 72, said, “The city has changed for the better. If more cities had these laws, America would be a better place to live.” Nicon Patokis, 38, a barman, said, “ I like the new laws. If people smoked in here, we’d go home smelling of cigarettes.” Recent figures show that New York now has fewer crimes per 100,000 people than 193 other US cities. And it’s ture?it’s safer, cleaner and more healthy than before. But let’s be honest?who goes to New York for its clean streets?
  16、Some activities have recently become illegal in New York.Right
  17、It is now illegal to smoke or drink alcohol anywhere in New York.Wrong
  18、Eating apples in the park is illegal.Wrong
  19、The businessmen like the new laws.Not Mentioned
  20、Elle and Serge Schroitman parked their car on the public driveway.Wrong
  21、The editor of Vanity Fair magazine thinks some of the new laws are stupid.Right
  22、New York is cleaner and safer than before.Right 三、概括大意与完成句子 www.studyez.com Are You a Successful Leader? Almost nothing we do in this world is done in isolation. At work or at play, you’ll find yourself in groups, working with other people: your team at work, a meeting with colleagues, your family, a holiday with friends, a group of students working together, a day out walking in the mountains, a group of neighbours wanting to make changes. It is now recognized that being able to work successfully with other people is one of the major keys to success, partly because we need to do it so often. In almost every situation where you’re in a group, you will need a skilled leader. All groups need leaders and all successful groups have good Leaders. Groups without leaders or with weak leader almost always break down. Members of a leaderless group often begin to feel dissatisfied and frustrated. Time is wasted and the tasks are not achieved. There are often arguments and tensions between people as there is nobody to keep the goals clear. Some personalities dominate and others disappear.
Often group members begin not to come to meetings in order to avoid more disharmony. Some people are natural leaders. The celebrity chief, Antonio Carluccio says, “Ture leaders are born and you can spot them in kitchens.” They’re people who combine toughness, fairness and humour. Although a lot of people agree that there are some natural-born leaders, most people now recognise that leadership can also be taught. Our professional and experienced staff can train almost anyone how to be a successful leader. Good leaders don’t make people do things in a bossy, controlling way. You can learn how to involve everyone, encouraging the whole group to work towards a common goal. Our training courses use activities and techniques to develop a range of qualities which are necessary to be a good leader. Self-confidence is vital and being able to overcome your own fears about Beijing a leader. Successful leaders also need to be calm and intelligent. They need to be able to work out good strategies and make sound judgments under pressure. Lastly, and probably most importantly, good leaders need to be sensitive, sociable and be able to get on with a wide range of people. Good leadership is essentially the ability to influence others and good leaders allow all members of the group to contribute.
  23、 Paragraph 1F
  24、 Paragraph 2E
  25、 Paragraph 3Cwww.studyez.com
  26、 Paragraph 4A A. A good leader needs a variety of qualities. B. These techniques are used to train leaders. C. Training can make good leaders. D. Most of good leaders are natural-born. E. It’s important to have a good leader. F. People are in groups.
  27、 One of the major key to success is .A
  28、 Groups often break down because of .C
  29、 Good leaders always avoid .D
  30、 Self-confidence is the key to .F A. the ability to work with others B. encouraging group members
C. D. E. F.
lack of good leaders bossing people around working out good strategies overcoming fears about being a leader
www.studyez.com 四、阅读理解 第一篇 The Smell of Money For many years large supermarkets have been encouraging us to spend money by pumping the smell of freshly-baked into their stores. Now Dale Av, a leading firm of aroma 香气) ( consultants, has been approached by Barclay’s Bank to develop suitable artificial smells for their banks. Researchers have suggested that surrounding customers with the “smell of money” will encourage them to fell relaxed and optimistic and give them added confidence in the bank’s security and professionalism. But before a smell can be manufactured and introduced into banks air conditioning systems, it must be identified and chemically ayalysed, and this has proved to be difficult. The problem is that banknotes and coins tend to pick up the smell of their surroundings. So cash that has been sitting in a cash register at a fishmonger’s(鱼贩)will smell of fish, and banknotes used to pay for meals in restaurants will tend to smell of food. It may be a challenge, but aroma experts have little doubt that the use of artificial smells can be an effective form of subconscious advertising. Lunn Poly, a British travel company, introduced the smell of coconuts(椰子)into its travel agencies and saw a big increase in spending by holiday makers. Many cafes now have electric dispensers(自动售货机)that release the smell of freshly roasted coffee near their entrances, subtly encouraging customers to com in and have a drink or snack. Even prestigious car maker Rolls-Royce has been spraying the inside of its cars to enhance the smell of the leather seats. “The sense of semll is probably the most basic and primitive of all human sense,” explains researcher Jim O’Riordan. “There is a direct pathway from the olfactory (嗅 觉的) organs in the nose to the brain.” It is certainly true that most people find certain smells incredibly strong, stirring memories and feelings in a way that few other stimulants(刺激物)can rival. It is a phenomenon marketing consultants have long recognized, but until recently have been unable to harness. “We’ve made great progress but the technology of odour production is still in its infancy,” says O’ Riordan. “Who knows where it will take us.” 题干:Artificial smells have NOT been used in 答案:banks.www.studyez.com
题干:Researchers believe that introducing the “smell of money” into banks will encourage people 答案:to feel confident about banks. 题干:The difficulty of producing the “smell of money” lies in that 答案:it's hard to identify and analyze it. 题干:The word “harness” in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to 答案:control. 题干:Researchers think 答案:the technology to produce artificial smells is in the early stage. 第二篇 Spolit for Choice
Choice, we are given to1 believe, is a right. In daily life, people have come to expect endless situations about which they are required to make decisions one way or another. In the main, these are just annoying moments at work which demand some extra energy or brainpower, or during lunch breaks like choosing which type of coffee to order or indeed which coffee shop to go to. But sometimes selecting one option as opposed to another can have serious or lifelong consequences. More complex decision-making is then either avoided, postponed, or put into the hands of the army of professionals, lifestyle coaches, lawyers, advisors, and the like, waiting to lighten the emotional burden for a fee. But for a good many people in the world, in rich and poor countries, choice is a luxury, not a right. And for those who think they are exercising their right to make choices, the whole system is merely an illusion, created by companies and advertisers wanting to sell their wares. The main impact of endless choice in people’s lives is anxiety. Buying something as basic as a coffee pot is not exactly simple. Easy access to a wide range of consumer goods induces a sense of powerlessness, even paralysis(瘫痪) in many , people, ending in the shopper giving up and walking away, or just buying an unsuitable item that is not really wanted in order to solve the problem and reduce the unease. Recent surveys in the United Kingdom have shown that a sizeable proportion of electrical goods bought per household are not really needed. The advertisers and the shareholders of the manufacturers are, nonetheless, satisfied. It is not just their availability that is the problem, but the speed with which new versions of products come on the market. Advances in design and production mean that new items are almost ready by the time that goods hit the shelves. Products also
need to have a short 1ifespan so that the public can be persuaded to replace them within a short time. The classic example is computers, which are almost obsolete once they are bought. At first, there were only one or two available from a limited number of manufacturers, but now there are many companies all with not only their own products but different versions of the same machine. This makes selection a problem. Gone are the days when one could just walk with ease into a shop and buy one thing: no choice, no anxiety. The plethora(过剩)of choice is not limited to consumer items. With the greater mobility of people around the world, people have more choice about where they want to 1ive and work?a fairly recent phenomenon. In the past, nations migrated across huge swathes of the earth in search of food, adventure, and more hospitable environments. Whole nations crossed continents and changed the face of history. So the mobility of people is nothing new. The creation of nation states and borders effectively slowed this process down. But what is different now is the speed at which migration is happening. 题干:Sometimes people ask professionals to help them make decisions because 答案:the decision may have serious impact on their liveswww.studyez.com 题干:When people cannot easily decide what to buy, which of the following is the least possible choice? 答案:Seeking advice 题干:Why do products have a short lifespan nowadays? 答案:They are quickly replaced with new ones. 题干:How does migration today differ from that of the past? 答案:People now have more choice about where to migrate. 题干:Which of the following best expresses the writer’s view on choice? 答案:More choice, more anxiety. 第三篇 Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?
Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of
 

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