Smoking Can Increase Depressive Symptoms in Teens, Study Finds
ScienceDaily (Aug. 27, 20
  10) ? While some teenagers may puff on cigarettes to 'self-medicate' against the blues, scientists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually increase depressive symptoms in some adolescents. Published in the journal Addictive Behaviors, the findings are part of the long-term Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study based at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre.
"This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived emotional benefits of smoking among adolescents," says lead author Michael Chaiton, a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto. "Although cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood, in the long term we found teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms." As part of the study, some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires from grades 7 to 11 about their use of cigarettes to affect mood. Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French and English participants, urban and rural schools, and schools located in high, moderate and low socioeconomic neighbourhoods. Participants were divided into three groups: never smokers; smokers who did not use cigarettes to self-medicate, improve mood or physical state; smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate. Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tired to do things; had trouble going to sleep or staying asleep; felt unhappy, sad, or depressed; felt hopeless about the future; felt nervous or tense; and worried too much about things. "Smokers who used cigarettes as mood enhancers had higher risks of elevated depressive symptoms than teens who had never smoked," says coauthor Jennifer O'Loughlin, a professor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine and scientist at the of the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre. "Our study found that adolescent smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are at higher risk of developing depressive symptoms." The association between depression and smoking exists principally among teens that use cigarettes to feel better. "It's important to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke," says Dr. Chaiton.
研究发现吸烟能增加青少年患忧郁症的几率
ScienceDaily (Aug. 27, 20
  10) ? While some teenagers may puff on cigarettes to 'self-medicate' against the blues, scientists at the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal have found that smoking may actually increase depressive symptoms in some adolescents. 科学日报(2010 年 8 月 27 日) -尽管有些青少年吸食香 烟的目的是为了“自我疗伤”用以对抗忧郁,但多伦多大学和蒙特利尔 大学的的科学家研究发现,吸烟反而可能会增加一些青少年忧郁症状。 Published in the journal Addictive Behaviors , the findings are part of the long-term Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study based at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre.该研究结果是由 蒙特利尔大学研究中心基础医院发表在《上瘾行为学》杂志,研究结果 指出有一部分青少年长期依赖尼古丁(NDIT)。
"This observational study is one of the few to examine the perceived emotional benefits of smoking among adolescents," says lead author Michael Chaiton, a research associate at the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit of the University of Toronto. “ 这以观察研究得出少数青少年认 为吸烟对情感改观有所益处,:”来自多伦多大学安大略省烟草研究组的主要作者米 希尔切什说 道,。 "Although cigarettes may appear to have self-medicating effects or to improve mood, in the long term we found teens who started to smoke reported higher depressive symptoms." “虽然香烟可能会出现如同自我治疗药物般的效果或者改善对人的情绪起到改善的作用,但通过 我们长期观察发现开始吸烟的青少年身患忧郁症的几率更高。” As part of the study, some 662 high school teenagers completed up to 20 questionnaires from grades 7 to 11 about their use of cigarettes to affect mood. 作为研究的一部分,共有 662 名来 自高中从 7 至 11 年级的青少年完成多达 20 份关于他们的吸食香烟的对心情产生影响的问卷调 查。 Secondary schools were selected to provide a mix of French and English participants, urban and rural schools, and schools located in high, moderate and low socioeconomic neighbourhoods. 所选参与者中学的中学不仅有来自法国和英国等不同国籍的,还包括城市和 农村,高中低等各个阶层的人士。 Participants were divided into three groups: never smokers; smokers who did not use cigarettes to self-medicate, improve mood or physical state; smokers who used cigarettes to self-medicate. 参加者被分成三组:从不吸烟者;不将香烟作为药品只是为了改善情绪或身体状 况者;将香烟作为药品使用者。 Depressive symptoms were measured using a scale that asked how often participants felt too tired to do things; had trouble going to sleep or staying asleep; felt unhappy, sad, or depressed; felt hopeless about the future; felt nervous or tense; and worried too much about things. 抑郁症状测定通常是在一定范围内询问参与者多久会有累到什 么事都不想做的地步,或遇到了麻烦以致无法入睡或持续熟睡,感到不愉快,悲伤或沮丧,感到 前途无望渺茫,感到焦虑或紧张;及出现过多的担忧。
"Smokers who used cigarettes as mood enhancers had higher risks of elevated depressive symptoms than teens who had never smoked," says coauthor Jennifer O'Loughlin, a professor at the University of Montreal Department of Social and Preventive Medicine and scientist at the of the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre. “仅将香烟作为缓解情绪比从未吸烟的 青少年患忧郁症状的风险要高很多:”来自加拿大自蒙特利尔社会与预防部医学大学教授和蒙特 利尔大学医院研究中心的科学家詹妮弗奥拉克林副总编说道。 "Our study found that adolescent smokers who reported emotional benefits from smoking are at higher risk of developing depressive symptoms." “我们的研究发现,吸烟对青少年烟民患抑郁症的危害远比其对情绪的 舒缓要高的多。 The association between depression and smoking exists principally among teens that use cigarettes to feel better. 抑郁和吸烟的存在的关系上主要青少年觉得吸食香烟感觉好点。 "It's important to emphasize that depressive symptom scores were higher among teenagers who reported emotional benefits from smoking after they began to smoke," says Dr. Chaiton. “特别 需要要强调的是,吸烟的青少年中借助香烟来改善情绪其患忧郁症状得分较高的几率要高些,, Chaiton 博士说:”
 

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