2011 年职称英语教材(理工类 B)幺建华押题班第一位阅读理解第
  34、
  38、33 篇 WORD 年职称英语教材( 押题班第一位 )幺建华押题班第一位阅读理解第 、 、 【第一位】
*第三十四篇 Batteries Built by Viruses *第三十八篇 Longer Lives for Wild Elephants * 第三十三篇 Experts Call for Local and Regional Control of Sites for Radiocative Waste
*第三十四篇 Batteries Built by Viruses What do chicken pox,the common cold, the flu,and AIDS have in common? They’ re all disease caused by viruses,tiny microorganisms that can pass from person to 1 person.It's no wonder that when most people think about viruses, finding ways t0 2 steer clear of viruses is what's on people's minds. 3 Not everyone runs from the tiny disease carders, though . In Cambridge, 4 Massachusetts , scientists have discovered that some viruses can be helpful in an unusual way.They are putting viruses to work, teaching them to build some of the world's smallest rechargeable batteries. Viruses and batteries may seem like an unusual pair,but they're not so strange 5 for engineer Angela Belcher,who first came up with the idea.At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, she and her collaborators bring together different areas of science in new ways.In the case of the virus-built batteries, the scientists combine what they know about biology, technology and production techniques. Belcher's team includes Paula Hammond, helps put together the tiny batteries, who and Yet-Ming Chiang, an expert on how to store energy in the form of a battery. “We’ re working on things we traditionally don’t associate with nature. says Hammond. ” 6 Many batteries are already pretty small.You can hold A.C and D batteries in your hand.The coin?like batteries that power watches are often smaller than a penny.However。every year,new electronic devices like personal music players or cell phones get smaller than the year before.As these devices shrink, ordinary batteries won't be small enough to fit inside. The ideal battery will store a lot of energy in a small package.Right now, Belcher's model battery,a metallic disk completely built by viruses,looks like a regular watch battery.But inside,its components are very small?so tiny you can only see them with a powerful microscope. How small are these battery parts? To get some idea of the size,pluck one hair from your head.Place your hair on a piece of white paper and try to see how wide your hair is?pretty thin,right? Although the width of each person's hair is a bit different,you could probably fit about l o of these virus?built battery parts, side to side,across one hair.These microbatteries may change the way we look at
viruses . 词汇: 词汇: chicken pox 水痘 microorganism n.微生物 metallic adj.金属的 collaborator n.合作者,协作者 pluck v.拔,摘,采 注释: 注释:
  1.no wonder:不足为奇的,难怪
  2.steer clear of:避开,绕开
  3.though:意思为“然而,可是” 。在句中使用时通常放在句末。
  4. Cambridge, Massachusetts: 马萨诸塞州的剑桥市。 本文第三段提到的 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge 即指坐落于剑桥市的麻省理工学院。麻省 理工学院于 1861 年由著名自然科学家威廉?巴罗吉杰斯创立。这是美国的一所私立研究型 大学,培养高级科技人才和管理人才,是以理工科为主的、世界一流的综合性大学。
  5.came up with:提出
  6.A,C and D batteries:A、C、D 均为电池型号。
  7.These microbatteries may change the way we look at viruses:这些微型电池可能 会改变我们看待病毒的方式。作者想表达的意思是:人们一直认为病毒有害无益,现在病毒 可用来制作电池,人们对病毒的看法可能会因此而发生变化。 练习: 练习:
  1.According to the first paragraph,people try to A.kill microorganisms related to chicken pox,the flu,etc. B.keep themselves away from viruses because they are invisible. C.stay away from viruses because they are causes of various diseases. D.cure themselves of virus?related diseases by taking medicines.
  2.What is Belcher's team doing at present? A.It is finding ways to get rid of viruses. . B.It is mass?producing microbatteries. C.It is making batteries with viruses. D.It is analyzing virus genes.
  3.What expression below is opposite in meaning to the word "shrink" appearing in paragraph
  5? A.Broaden. B.Spread. C.Extend. D.Expand:
  4. Which of the following is true of Belcher's battery mentioned in paragraph
  6? A.It is made of metal. B.It is a kind of watch battery. C.It can only be seen with a microscope.
7
D.It is a metallic disk with viruses inside it.
  5. How tiny is one battery part? A.Its width is one tenth of a hair. B.It equals the width of a hair. C.It is as thin as a piece of paper. D.Its width is too tiny to measure. 答案与题解: 答案与题解:
  1.C 短文第一段的大致意思是,许多疾病都由病毒引起,诸如水痘、感冒和艾滋病,所以 人们想尽办法躲避病毒。这是 C 所表达的意思。A 不是正确选择,因为文章并没有说人们想 方设法去杀死病毒。B 的后半句的内容(病毒肉眼看不见)和 D 的内容(吃药治疗病毒引起的 疾病)文中没有提到.
  2.C 短文的第二段明确提供了答案。
  3. 根据上下文, D shrink 在此的意思是 “收缩” 即 , “缩小” 所以, 。 它的反义词是 expand(增 大,扩张)。C 不是正确选择,因为 extend 的意思是 become longer,即“延伸”或“加长” 。 A 的意思是“加宽” ,也不是答案。B 的意思是“伸展,展开” ,在一定的上下文里也可以做 shrink 的反义词,但在第五段这个语境里,B 不是最佳选择。
  4.D 第六段第二句中提到的 metallic disk 是指“金属圆盘” ,它是微型电池的外形,其内 部是由病毒构成的电池部件。微型电池不是由金属组成的,所以 A 不是答案。本段提到,这 种电池 looks like a regular watch battery,与手表里电池外形相似,但并不等同手表 电池, 所以 B 也不是正确选择。 文章只是说电池的部件(但并没有说整个电池)小到只能用显 微镜才能看到, 所以 C 也不是正确的选择。 才是第六段所要表达的主要内容, D 因此是答案。
  5.A 短文最后一段的第四句(“you could probably fit about lo of these virus-built battery parts,side to side,across one hair”)提供了本题的答案。
病毒电池
理B
水痘、普通感冒、流感和艾滋病有哪些相似之处呢?这些都是由病毒引起的疾病。病 毒是能够在人与人之间传染的微生物。 难怪大部分人一提到病毒, 首先想到的是如何躲避病 毒。 然而, 并不是每个人都躲避这些病毒携带者。在马萨诸塞州剑桥市,科学家发现有些 病毒能起到非同寻常的作用。他们使病毒开始工作,使病毒构成世界上最小的充电电池。 病毒和电池的搭档似乎并不常见,但这对于工程师安吉拉?贝尔彻来说却并不陌生。 安吉拉?贝尔彻最早产生了这一想法。在位于剑桥市的麻省理工学院,她和合作者一起用新 方式融合了不同的科学领域。在由病毒构成的电池里,科学家融合了他们在生物、技术和生 产工艺方面的知识。 贝尔彻的团队包括帮助组装微型电池的宝拉?哈蒙德和以电池形式存储能量的专家蒋 业明。哈蒙德说, “我们现在从事的行业是传统中不会想到的。 ” 许多电池已经很小了。A 型、C 型和 D 型电池都可以握在手里。硬币形状的手表电池 通常比分币还小。然而,个人音乐播放器和手机等新型电子设备变得越来越小。这些设备变 小了,普通电池就无法安装进去了。 理想的电池应当体积小、储能多。 ,贝尔彻的电池模型是完全由病毒构成的金属圆盘, 看起来就像普通手表电池。但里面的部件却非常小??小到用高倍望远镜才能看到。 这些电池部件到底有多小呢?从头上拔一根头发,把它放到白纸上,看看头发的宽度 ??是不是很细呢?尽管每个人的头发宽度不同, 每个头发上可以并列排放大约10个病毒电 池部件。这些为电池能会改变我们对病毒的看法。
*第三十八篇
Longer Lives for Wild Elephants Most people think of zoos as safe places for animals,where struggles such as difficulty finding food and avoiding predators don't exist. Without such problems, l animals in zoos should live to a ripe old age . 2 But mat may not be true for the largest land animals on Earth. Scientists have known that elephants in zoos often suffer from poor health.They develop diseases, joint problems and behavior changes. Sometimes. they even become infertile. unable or to have babies. To learn more about how captivity affects elephants, a team of international scientists compared the life spans of female elephants born in zoos with female elephants living outdoors in their native lands.Zoos keep detailed records of all the animals in their care,documenting factors such as birth dates,illnesses, weight and death.These records made it possible for the researchers to analyze 40 years of data on 800 African and Asian elephants in zoos across Europe. The scientists compared the life spans of the zoo.born elephants with the life spans of thousands 3 of female wild elephants in Africa and Asian elephants that work in logging camps , over approximately the same time period. The team found that female African elephants born in zoos lived an average of l
  6.9 years.Their wild counterparts who died of natural causes lived an average of 56 years??more than three times as long.Female Asian elephants followed a similar pattern.In zoos, they lived l
  8.9 s years, while those in the logging camps lived
  41.7 years. Scientists don't yet know why wild elephants seem to fare so much better than their zoo-raised counterparts. Georgia Mason, biologist at the University of Guelph a 4 in Canada who led the study, thinks stress and obesity may be to blame .Zoo elephants don't get the same kind of exercise they would in the wild,and most are very fat.Elephant social lives are also much different in zoos than in the wild,where they live in large herds and family groups. Another finding from the study showed that Asian elephants born in zoos were more likely to die early than Asian elephants captured in the wild and brought to zoos.Mason suggests stress in the mothers in zoos might cause them to have babies that are less likely to survive. The study raises some questions about acquiring more elephants to keep in zoos . While some threatened and endangered species living in zoos reproduce successfully and maintain healthy populations,that doesn't appear to be the case with elephants."Currently,zoos al e net consumers of elephants,not net producers, " Mason says. 词汇: 词汇: Predator n.食肉动物 Ripe adj.成熟的 Infertile adj.不生育的 Captivity n.监禁;束缚
Fare v.过活,生活 Obesity adj.过度肥胖;肥胖症 注释: 注释:
  1.1ive to a ripe old age:这是一种固定用法,意思是 live to an age that is considered to be very old(长寿,高寿)。
  2.be true for:或者 be true of:对……适用。短文中第二段第一句:But that may not be true for the largest land animals on Earth.这里,作为主语的 that 指的是第一段 所陈述的内容。这个句子要传达的意思是:动物园对其他动物来说是一个安栖之地,而对大 象来说却不然。
  3.logging camps:伐木场。Loggin9 作为名词,意思是:伐木业。
  4.stress and obesity may be to blame:压力和肥胖是问题的根源。be to blame:该受 责备,应承担责任。 练习: 练习:
  1.According to the first two paragraphs,unlike other zoo animals,zoo elephants A.have difficulty eating food. B.1ive to a ripe old age. C:are not afraid of predators. D.develop health problems.
  2.Which of the following about the international scientists' research on the life spans of elephants is NOT true? (See paragraph
  3)? A.They compared zoo elephants with wild elephants. B.They kept detailed records of all the elephants in their care. C.They analyzed the records of the elephants kept in zoos. D.The zoo-born elephants they studied are kept in European zoos.
  3.What do the scientists find in their research? A.Female elephants live longer than male elephants. B.Female zoo elephants live longer than their wild counterparts. C.Female zoo elephants die much earlier than their wild counterparts. D.Elephants in zoos and those in the wild enjoy the same long life spans.
  4.What are the possible causes of stress and obesity zoo?raised elephants generally suffer from? A.They do not like living in herds. B.They do not get enough exercise. C.They do not live with their families.
 

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