罗勇) (罗勇)
  1、包装 、 ①书写、习惯 ②格式(如书信右上角的时间) 、结构(两头小、中间大、字数分配 50-80-
  50) ?长句? ③选词造句→短句←交错使用(15 句,1/3 写长句,30 字左右,长句后接一两句短句过渡) ?难句:强调句(最好使)
  2、货真价实 、 ?情景文字 ①不要跑题(跑题则一半分数以下) ,审题(三维)→提纲 ?图或表上的信息 ②内容衔接(思维跨度不要太大)→总述和概述 ?注意句子完整 ③方法多样性 一、大作文 (一)描绘:描述性语言、可加议论性观点 (二)议述:作者意图、个人评价 (三)总结(好的:预期一下未来;坏的:采取措施防治)/ 例证 具体讲: (一) 描绘:总体背景介绍+细节刻画图或表上的信息
  1、背景介绍 例一:人类克隆(试管婴儿 / 一个老婆四个一模一样的老公, “谁才是真的?” ) The problem of the use of genetic technologies on human being has [caused/aroused public concern]/[loomed up/cropped up as a burning/challenging topic]. 例二:中国青少年犯罪比率上升(表) In the recent years, China experienced/witnessed/was plagued with an alarming increase in juvenile delinquency. 例三:人和社会的发展与环境的协调(寓意图、对比图) Currently, the topic/phenomenon of environment versus development has been in the limelight. Nowhere is the clash more evident/visible than in China, where the largest population confronts deforestation, pollution and acid rain on a range scale.
  2、细节描绘 例:04 年作文题 The (a set of) cartoon depicts a vivid scene in which an athlete dripping sweat is rushing to the end. Unquestionably/Undoubtedly/Beyond doubt, he wins the game but it is not the key message conveyed/implied/delivered by the picture. Apparently/Basically, the striking feature is that there is a line marked as both “the start” and “the end”, which means after the player came to the finishing-line, a new race is waiting to him. 另:对于图表描述不光要用上升下降等词,还要使用比较句型结构。 compare with/to …as much as that… more than, less than by 2000, [the number reach the peak/bottom]/[the largest number appeared]. (二) 议述 引言句+分论点、事实信息罗列
1
如:As a matter of fact, the purpose of the drawer/drawing is to make us [pay high/more attention to…]/[rethink/have a fresh look at…]. 例一:兼职 part-time job brainstorming I. Advantages: ?pocket money ①make money →follow interest ?tuition fees ?on one’s own ?life→make friends ②experience ?custom, culture ?work→lay a solid foundation for future career ?be familiar with new fields II. Disadvantages: ①money: be so young that they are bound to be cheated/be induced to do… ②experience→science and technology accelerate/speed up → invalid ?hurt/injury/do harm to/endanger III. what should we do? ①a second language ②computer operation and application ③后果 degrade one’s academic performance 完整表述: Acquiring knowledge at school without practical work experience is like working on one leg. Occasionally, although a student could attain some experience, nevertheless/yet such experience too frequently is [valid or even harmful]/[a bane rather than a boon]. That is to say, its demerits outweigh merits. Why? This is natural and necessary. Not only may the acceleration of science and technology bring about new tools/skills with each passing day, but also our work circumstances will change as the society develops. The fact that college students must get a good command of a second language as well as master the operation and application of computer requires them not to do part-time job. If they take part-time job, their energy and time will not be enough and their academic will degrade.
例二:出国留学 brainstorming ? dream of (doing) 原因(好处)→ the mere way to achieve success ? curricula arrangement, teaching method ↓why?/how?/which channel? good learning condition ↓what? up-to-date teaching equipment first-class research facilities world famous professors 坏处:money → tuition fees 而在国内 don’t worry about ? living expense
2
communication: language and cultural barrier 而在国内 parent’s care and support facilitate 例三:盗版问题(最新光盘,四元一张;港台歌曲,十元三盒;流行书刊,一律二折) (乾坤大挪移)Nowadays, the problem of piracy has been in the limelight. According to the cartoon we could find that books, VCDs, tapes and other high-tech products have been copied. When a new product enters into the market, we are bound to discover that its pirated counterpart will soon swarm/flood into the same market. Never in the nation’s history has the problem of piracy been more severe than now. There is no denying that pirated commodities has not only resulted in a great loss to producer /manufacturers, inventors and writers, but also disturb/have a confusion in the market. Why? In that the pirated goods often cost less than the original ones, they enjoy a pretty good selling in spite of their shoddy quality. The genuine ones, however/by contrast, sell poorly. A current investigation/study/ report/survey/poll indicates/manifests/reveals that consumers spend approximately ¥20 billion on the pirated counterparts instead of the genuine ones annually. In addition, such pirated product, especially books, will do harm to/endanger the producers’ reputation due to too many misprinting. (三) 结论 另:养宠物话题 With the quickening pace of modern life and fierce competition in the society, many people feel a sense of loneliness, not only because of the lack of normal communication in the family but also since absence of intercourse among the neighborhood. Cats and dogs or other pets will fill your void.
  1、 总结性发言 例:养宠物 [Taking into account all the factors]/[which has been discussed above], we can safely come to a conclusion that keep-pets has both positive and negative influences. What we must do is to make sure that not only are its benefits encouraged and developed/retained but also we have to strive to/attempt to/endeavor to eliminate its unfavorable impacts.
  2、 号召与后果 例:腐败现象 It is time that our government/authority should speak out against corruption and take firm/strong/stern action to punish him whoever takes bribes and embezzles funds. For the official corruption [if permitted to continue]/[If let this situation go as it is] will tarnish the government’s popularity/image and may lead to ultimate/terminate downfall.
  3、 具体的建议 例:学生吸烟比率上升 In any case, we ought to do more than talk about the rise in student smoking. Our high schools and colleges must bring in some cancer experts/specialists/researchers who run films/slides for students, showing the dreadful consequence caused by cigarette smoking. We can also arrange/schedule visits to hospital wards for lung cancer patients. In short, we should take student smoking seriously. 二、应用文 书信 ?①语气 / 措辞客气 公务信件→②格式:开头(写明目的) 、结尾(期待回音) ?③词汇 / 语法(言简意赅,长句最多 25 个字) 另:无论是大作文还是小作文,都不用些标题,如果想写则须注意以下问题:
3
①实词大写;②字母长度大于等于 4 个的虚词大写;③第一个单词的位置,不论实词还是虚词都要大写; ④动词短语不做标题 补充:
  1、投诉信(换宿舍) Dec.29th, 2004 Dear Sir or Madam/To whom it may concern/Dear Mr. Dean Zhang, I’m writing to inform you that I wish to moving to a new room next term. I prefer a single room, as I rind the present sharing arrangement inconvenient. I must explain that the reason for dissatisfaction is my roommate’s inconsiderate behavior. For one thing, his friends constantly visit him; for another, he regularly holds noisy parties. In addition, he too often borrows my private things without my permission. Consequently, I find it difficult for me to concentrate on my studies. I’m sure that you will agree that I must move into a room of my own, where I would be far from such distraction. I would be grateful if you would take my requirement into consideration, as well as provide me with a room, preferably not in the same building but as near to college campus as possible. Yours faithfully XXX
  2、感谢信(感谢车祸中及时救助你的人) I’m writing to express my heartful gratitude. I’m referring to the unfortunate crash, when I was knocked off my bike by a taxi. But for your timely taking first aid and sending me to a nearby hospital, I fear that the consequence might have been much more serious. The doctor says that my broken leg is healing well, and cuts and bruises will soon be completely better, what’s more, the taxi company agreed to pay my hospital bills. Everyone holds that it is your quick-witted action in the emergency that has led to satisfactory outcome. Although many people talk about the need to be unselfish and to ready to help others, we see few people practicing what they preach. You showed by your selfless action that you are an exception. If there are more people like you, the world would be a much nicer one.
  3、求购 / 预定信(为朋友庆祝生日) I’m preparing a birthday party for a friend, and writing o inquire if you restaurant could offer private rooms with catering service. If so, I want to reserve one room for next Friday (oct.16th) from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. The room should be big enough to accommodate more than 50 people comfortably. And the party will be hold in a cocktail style; therefore a majority of us will be standing up for most of the time. So ten chairs are needed in the room. If there isn’t a bar, a drinks table should be set up. For entertainment, Karaoke of Disk jockey may be acceptable. Will you please contact me in two days? You can reach at 13820XXXXXX in the daytime and at 2737XXXX in the night. Thanks for you consideration once more. 一、真题回顾 预测热点:
  1、战争与和平,反恐
  2、资源、能源、环境保护
  3、信息及网络技术
  4、纳米技术
  5、生命科学 二、难度分析 05 年难度要比 04 年难一些
94
99
01
04 05
4
三、词汇
  1、生词 ①构词法 例:95 年(
  72)validate(valid 有效的)(
  75)underprivileged(privilege 特权) ; 97 年(
  72)entitlement(entitle 使有权利)(
  73)astrophysicists(astro-天体,宇宙,astrology 占 ; 星术) 00 年(
  71)centralized(central 主要的,中心的)(
  74)industrialized(industrial 工业的) ; ②结合上下文(对称位置的单词、词组可做同义推理) 例:94 年(
  71)not so much A as B(另 through,because of) 95 年(
  74)qualities 品质(可数) 98 年(
  73)balloon-borne 球载 99 年(
  75)view as 视作(同义 see as,regard as) ③跳过不译
  2、一词多译 ①结合上下文判断 例:94 年第一句 school 学派 98 年(
  72)clouds 宇宙云 99 年(
  73)transfer 改变,转变 00 年(
  75)migration 人口迁徙,人口流动(不能译作移民,移民是带政治色彩的) ②结合搭配对象 例:95 年(
  75)gross 明显的(如果知道“总的”是不正确的,而又不知道应该是什么意思,可跳过不译) 96 年(
  72)establishment 机构(
  74)elegant 完美的,对应(
  75)elegance 97 年(
  73)extend 给予,提供 ③从逻辑性上判断 例:94 年(
  74)heaven 天空,太空 99 年(
  71)recreated 重现 ④词性 例:to better(v. 改善)the condition of the workers we have no time to deliberate(v.思考,考虑)on the issue
  3、代词 注意代词的形容词用法与指示代词的区别 例:this(指示性形容词,这个)bag This(指示代词,这)is mine 97 年(
  75)that 人们对动物的同情心(注意:当多个代词指定同一内容时,只需译一个) 01 年(
  71)当指代混乱时,要指明所指代内容(注意:如果指代的内容在上下文中不好找,则直接 译为这,那,它,它们等)
  4、单复数问题 例:
  98(
  71)scientists 科学家们 四、句子
  1、时态
5
①将来时, “将”安体现 例:01 年(
  71) ②完成时, “了”字体现 例:01 年(
  72) ③进行时, “正在”体现 例:00 年(
  73)
  2、语态,译时可将被动形式变为主动形式 例:96 年(
  73) ;99 年(
  73) ;97 年(
  73) 如果主语无法补充,而又不能译成被动形式,则需意译 例:95 年(
  72)be regarded…译为“……所必不可少的” 00 年(
  72)be bound up with…本意为“与……捆绑” ,此处译为“与……紧密相关” (
  73)be exposed to…本意为“被置于……下” ,此处译为“接触到……” 五、特殊句型与结构
  1、more…than… ①beyond 超越 例:Her beauty is more than words can describe. ②与其……不如……,more 后是“不如”than 后是“与其” 例:His works seem more likely a collection of separate scenes than a novel.
  2、little/no more than 仅仅 例:Of him little is known more than he’s a doctor.
  3、nothing else than/but=noth
 

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