2010 考研英语(二)模拟试卷
Section I Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C, or D on ANSWER SHEET
  1.(10 points) Among the thousands of business schools now operating around the world you would be hard-pressed to find one that doesn't believe it can teach the skills of entrepreneurship. However, of the people who immediately 1 to mind when one thinks of entrepreneurs??Bill Gates, Richard Branson or Oprah Winfrey, for example?few have done more than 2 a speech at a business school. 3 ,a recent study by King's College in London has suggested what many intuitively 4 : that entrepreneurship may actually be in the blood?more to do with genes than classroom experience. All of which 5 the question?does an entrepreneur really need a business-school education? Not surprisingly some of the best-known schools in the field have a 6 answer to this: they don't actually profess to create entrepreneurs, 7 they nurture innate ability. Or as Timothy Faley of the entrepreneurial institute at Michigan's Ross School of Business 8 it: "A good idea is not enough. You need to know how to 9 a good idea into a good business." Schools do this in a number of ways. One is to 10 that faculty are a mix of classic academics and businesspeople with experience of 11 their own successful firms. They can also create "incubators" where students 12 ideas and rub shoulders on a day-to-day basis with the external business world, receiving both advice and hard cash in the form of investment. Arguably such help is now more important than ever. The modern entrepreneur is faced with a more 13 world than when Richard Branson began by selling records out of a phone box. According to Patrice Houdayer, head of one of Europe's best-known entrepreneurship schools, EMIYON in France, new businesses used to move through a 14 series of growth steps?what he terms garage, local, national and international. Now however, 15 the communications revolution, they can leapfrog these stages and go global more or less straightaway?encountering a whole new 16 of problems and challenges. In this 17 Professor Houdayer maintains that the increasingly 18 nature of MBA classes can help the nascent entrepreneur in three ways: by plugging them into an

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Section II Reading Comprehension Part A

Text 1 What's a label worth? A lot, it seems. Michael Hiscox and Nicholas Smyth, two Harvard University researchers, conducted an experiment on two sets of towels in an upmarket New York shop. One lot carried a label with the logo "Fair and Square" and the following message: These towels have been made under fair labour conditions, in a safe and healthy working environment which is free of discrimination, and where management has committed to respecting the rights and dignity of workers. The other set had no such label. Over five months, the researchers observed the impact of making various changes such as switching the label to the other set of towels and raising prices. The results were striking: not only did sales of towels

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (40 points)

international network of contacts and advisors, by preparing them for the pitfalls and opportunities 19 with dealing across different cultures and by 20 them to the different ways that business is conducted around the globe.
  1.[A]bring [B]call [C]spring [D]apply
  2.[A]report [B]deliver [C]prepare [D]compose
  3.[A]Indeed [B]Likewise [C]Therefore [D]Furthermore
  4.[A]conclude [B]assume [C]neglect [D]suspect
  5.[A]stirs [B]arouses [C]proves [D]invites
  6.[A]ready [B]unique [C]positive [D]favorable
  7.[A]yet [B]rather [C]nor [D]nevertheless
  8.[A]states [B]makes [C]puts [D]interprets
  9.[A]shift [B]transfer [C]modify [D]transform
  10.[A]ensure [B]assure [C]affirm [D]enlighten
  11. [A]carrying on [B]setting up [C]working out [D]turning around 1
  2. [A]convey [B]cherish [C]nurture [D]impart
  13.[A]complex [B]complicated [C]complementary [D] fantastic
  14.[A]variable [B]obvious [C]imperative [D]distinct
  15.[A]thanks to [B]but for [C]for all [D]next to 1
  6. [A]bulk [B]host [C]set [D]magnitude 1
  7. [A]position [B]context [C]perspective [D]dimension
  18.[A]similar [B]differential [C]diverse [D]versatile 1
  9. [A] interacted [B] combined [C] confronted [D] associated
  20.[A]entitling [B]exposing [C]leading [D]committing
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increase when they carried the Fair and Square label, they carried on increasing each time the price was raised. No wonder companies are keen to appeal to ethically (i.e. morally) minded consumers, whether on labour standards or green credentials. Timberland, a New Hampshire outdoor-gear company, is introducing detailed "Green Index" labels on its shoes. Tesco, M&S and Wal-Mart have all launched initiatives that bet on the rise of the ethical consumer. M&S estimates that about three-quarters of British consumers are interested in the green theme in some way. But even the keenest ethical consumer faces complicated situations, and sometimes the apparently obvious ethical choice turns out to be the wrong one. Surely it must be greener for Britons to buy roses from the Netherlands than ones air-freighted from Kenya? In fact, a study showed that related green house gas to the Dutch roses to be six times as large because they had to be grown in heated greenhouses. Joel Makower, editor of GreenBiz.com, says that, given a choice, most consumers will choose the greener product?provided it does not cost any more, comes from a trusted maker, requires no special effort to buy or use and is at least as good as the alternative. "That's almost an impossible barrier for any product," he notes. So shoppers will still flock to shops selling cheap products of decent quality, ignoring how these are made. They will often buy more if a product is attractively presented, never mind that the packaging may be wasteful. And when companies try to do the right thing, consumers will not always go along with them. The lesson for companies is that selling green is hard work. And it is no good getting too far ahead of the customer. Half a step ahead is about right. Much more, and you won't sell. Any less, and you won't lead.
  21.The experiment on the towels indicated that . [A]consumers liked to purchase labeled products [B]consumers would buy goods when prices rose [C]consumption was influenced by green labels [D]ethical concern may influence consumption
  22.According to the text, consumers' ethical choice . [A]determines the production of commodities [B]forces companies to sell green products only [C]leads companies to modify business activities [D]leads to higher labour and green standards
  23.We may infer from the fourth paragraph that . [A]green buying may be at higher environment cost [B]green production is actually complicated business [C]Dutch rose growth is greener than Kenya ones [D]British consumers actually oppose green farming
  24.According to Joel Makower, most consumers will . [A]buy greener products when given a choice [B]reject greener products for various reasons

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Text 2 There are various ways in which individual economic units can interact with one another. Three basic ways may be described as the market system, the administered system and the traditional system. In a market system individual economic units are free to interact among each other in the marketplace. It is possible to buy commodities from other economic units or sell commodities to them. In a market, transactions may take place via barter or money exchange. In a barter economy, real goods such as automobiles, shorts, and pizzas are traded against each other. Obviously, finding somebody who wants to trade my old car in exchange for a sailboat may not always be an easy task. Hence the introduction of money as a medium of exchange eases transactions considerably. In the modern market economy, goods and services are bought or sold for money. An alternative to the market system is administrative control by some agency over all transactions. This agency will issue edicts or commands as to how much of each good and service should be produced, exchanged, and consumed by each economic unit. Central planning may be one way of administering such an economy. The central plan, drawn up by the government, shows the amounts of each commodity produced by the various firms and allocated to different households for consumption. This is an example of complete planning of production consumption, and exchange for the whole economy. In a traditional society, production and consumption patterns are governed by tradition: every person's place within the economic system is fixed by parentage, religion and custom. Transactions take place on the basis of tradition, too. People belonging to a certain group or caste may have an obligation to care for other persons, provide them with food and shelter, care for their health, and provide their education. Clearly, in a system where every decision made on the basis of tradition alone, progress may be difficult to achieve. A stagnant society may result.
  26.What is the main purpose of the passage? [A]To outline contrasting types of economic. [B]To explain the science of economic systems. [C]To argue for the superiority of one economic system. [D]To compare barter and money-exchange markets.
  27.In the second paragraph, the word "real" in "real goods" could best be replaced by which of the following? [A]High quality. [B]Concrete.

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[C]pay more attention to the price of a product [D]refuse to follow the activities of companies
  25.Companies may learn the lesson that . [A]it is not worthwhile leading the customers [B]the customers are not easily to be misled [C]green policy is not effective for marketing [D]companies need a balanced green policy

Text 3 If sustainable competitive advantage depends on work-force skills, American firms have a problem. Human-resource management is considered an individual responsibility. Labour is simply another factor of production to be hired?rented at the lowest possible cost?much as one buys raw materials or equipment. The lack of importance attached to human-resource management can be seen in the corporate hierarchy. In an American firm the chief financial officer is almost always second in command. The post of head of human-resource management is usually a specialized job, off at the edge of the corporate hierarchy. The executive who holds it is never consulted on major strategic decisions and has no chance to move up to Chief Executive Officer (CEO) By way of contrast, in Japan . the head of human-resources management is central?usually the second most important executive, after the CEO, in the firm's hierarchy. While American firms often talk about the vast amounts spent on training their work forces, in fact they invest less in the skills of their employees than do either Japanese of German firms. The money they do invest is also more highly concentrated on professional and managerial employees. And the limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies. As a result, problems emerge when new breakthrough technologies arrive. If American workers, for example, take much longer to learn how to operate new flexible manufacturing stations than workers in Germany(as they do) the effective , cost of those stations is lower in Germany than it is in the United States. More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed. The result is a slower pace of technological change. And in the end the skills of the population affect the wages of the top half.

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[C]Utter. [D]Authentic.
  28.According to the passage, a barter economy can lead to . [A]rapid speed of transactions [B]misunderstandings [C]inflation [D]difficulties for the traders
  29.According to the passage, who has the greatest degree of control in an administered system? [A]Individual households. [B]Small businesses. [C]Major corporations. [D]The government.
  30.Which of the following is not mentioned by the author as a criterion for determining a person's place in a traditional society? [A]Family background. [B]Age. [C]Religious beliefs. [D]Custom.
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Text 4 The public holiday on the last Monday of August marks, in most British minds, the unofficial end of summer. A vast migration takes place, as millions take advantage of the long weekend to visit seaside resorts or fly to Europe in a final sun-seeking cheer.



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