新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 年考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列
新题型
2011 考研英语强化班新题型讲义
主讲:张销民
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填空式阅读 (新题型) 部分
三种备选题型 7选5 排序 匹配
从命题形式看命题原理 - 一篇填空式阅读的文章也是由两大信息板块组成的: 已知信息 -(原文在空缺之外的没有被挖掉的信息) 未知(待选信息) -(就是后面的待选选项中的信息,而这些信息实际上也不 是未知的,也是考生通过阅读可以把握的信息,所以称为待选信息更合适)
这个题型也是在考生对这两个信息板块之间互动关系的把握
测试点分析 判断和把握两个信息板块之间“相近性”的能力 判断和把握两个信息板块之间“衔接性”的能力
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新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 年考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列
新题型
做题大原则 ? 就近原则、衔接原则
最终的评判原则: 连贯性 ? 把握了衔接原则 一致性 ? 把握了就近原则
推荐的解题步骤 根据填空式阅读的命题形式,建议考生按照以下步骤来解题: ① 先阅读原文文章的首段; ② 阅读后面的备选选项; ③ 再阅读原文的信息,进行解题; ④ 最后,通读全文; 解题方法的基本设计思路 - “由点入面、以点串面“
破解新题型的八大解题方法体系: 方法
  1:复现结构定位法 方法
  2:上下文逻辑关系定位法 方法
  3:总分/分总结构法 方法
  4:举例定位法 方法
  5:时间、地点、数字、人名等客观线索衔接关系定位法 方法
  6:排比结构衔接法 方法
  7:无关词排除法 方法
  8:代词指代关系定位法
大纲样题解析
Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each
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新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 年考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列
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of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps .Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 41
Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. That kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate. 42 Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know noting. 43 There were also crablike creatures, whose bodies were covered
with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet. 44 Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.
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新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 年考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列
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45 About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings. [A]The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known. [B]Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate. [C]The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air. [D]The best index fossils tend to be marine creature. There animals evolved rapidly and spread over large over large areas of the world. [E]The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forma are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the star-fishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.
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新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 年考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列
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[F]When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved. [G]Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form. 41 题分析 ? 逻辑关系定位法 / 复现结构定位法 42 题分析 ? 复现结构定位法
43 题分析 ? 复现结构定位法
44 题分析 ? 举例定位法 出题方式一: 被例子所指的信息 设定在原文信息中 例子信息 设定在待选信息中
出题方式二: 被例子所指的信息 设定在待选信息中
例子信息 设定在原文信息中
例题: The main problem in discussing American popular culture is also one of its main characteristics: it won’t stay American. no matter what it is, whether it is films, food and fashion, music, casual sports or slang, it’s soon at home elsewhere in the world. There are several theories why American popular culture has had this appeal.
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One theory is that is has been “advertised” and marketed through American films, popular music, and more recently, television. 41 They are, after all, in competition with those produced by other countries. Another theory, probably a more common one, is that American popular culture is internationally associated with something called “the spirit of America.” 42 The final theory is less complex: American popular culture is popular because a lot of people in the world like it. Regardless of why its spreads, American popular culture is usually quite rapidly adopted and then adapted in many other countries. 43 Black leather jackets worn by many heroes in American movies could be found, a generation later, on all those young men who wanted to make this manly-look their own. Two areas where this continuing process is most clearly seen are clothing and music. Some people can still remember a time. When T-shirts, jogging clothes, tennis shoes, denim jackets, and blue jeans were not common daily wear everywhere. Only twenty years ago, it was possible to spot an American in Paris by his or her clothes. No longer so: those bright colors, checkered jackets and trousers, hats and socks which were once made fun in cartoons are back again in Paris as the latest fashion.
  44. The situation with American popular music is more complex because in the beginning, when it was still clearly American, it was often strongly resisted. Jazz was once thought to be a great danger to youth and their morals, and was actually outlawed in several countries. Today, while still showing its rather American roots, it has become so well established. Rock “n” roll and all its variations, country & western music, all have more or less similar histories. They were first resisted, often in America as well, as being “low-class,” and then as “a danger to our nation’s youth.” 45 And then the music became accepted and was extended and was extended and developed, and exported back to the U.S. [A] As a result, its American origins and roots are often quickly forgotten. “happy birthday to you,” for instance ,is such an everyday song that its source, its American copyright, so to speak , is not remembered. [B] But this theory fails to explain why American films, music, and television, programs are so popular in themselves. [C] American in origin, informal clothing has become the world’s first truly universal style. [D] The BBC, for example, banned rock and roll until 19
  62.
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新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 年考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列
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[E] American food has become popular around the world too. [F] This spirit is variously described as being young and free, optimistic and confident, informal and disrespectful. [G] It is hardly surprising that the public concern contributes a lot to the spread of the culture.
45 题分析 - 时间、地点、数字、人名等客观线索衔接关系定位法
例题:2006 年考研英语 PART B 部分 41 题 On the north bank of the Ohio river sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams, 52, and of a riverboat casino (a place where gambling games are played). During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,0
  00. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling. He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost $8
  00. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a "Fun Card", which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user’s gambling activities. For Williams, those activities become what he calls "electronic heroin". (
  41) . In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,1
  86. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem. In March 1998 a friend of Williams’s got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams’s gambling problem. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a “cease admissions” letter. Noting the medical/psychological nature of problem gambling behavior, the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being. (
  42) . The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 24 signs warning: “Enjoy the fun... and always bet with your head, not over it.” Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free
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新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 年考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列
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number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams’s suit charges that the casino, knowing he was “helplessly addicted to gambling,” intentionally worked to “lure” him to “engage in conduct against his will.” Well. (
  43) . The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders says “pathological gambling” involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall. (
  44) . Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities. (
  45) . Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on -- you might say addicted to -- revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers’ dollars has become intense. The Oct. 28 issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $
  3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web’s most profitable business. [A]Although no such evidence was presented, the casino’s marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected. [B]It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative? [C]By the time he
 

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