新东方考研语法 10 天速成电子教材主讲:印建坤
印建坤:
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印建坤,新东方考研英语主讲,清华大学硕士,理想主义爱国者,21 世 纪"五四青年"式奋青,中国第一个用心理学和逻辑学破译考研密码的青年 学者. 人生终极目标:感动中国! 信仰:成大事者,在孤独中享受寂寞,从寂寞中厮杀黎明!
定语从句(上)
一,定语从句的概念什么是定语从句?
例: A rich person is not the one who has the most, but is the one who needs the least. 用来修饰前面的名词或者代词的具有完整的主谓结构的句子就叫着定语从句.有两个必备的基本元素.一个是先 行词;一个是关系词.
  1.名词或代词做先行词. 例:He laughs best who laughs last.
  2.短语做先行词.Many of life's problems which were solved by asking family members, friends or colleagues are beyond the capability of the extended family to resolve.
  3.用句子做先行词.The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be. I am a student which you all know. 当先行词与关系词被割裂时是如何表现的.如:Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn, among other things, that you might - surprise! - fall off. 找先行词的方法.反证法.把它带进去.哪一个是通顺的,哪一个就是先行词.
  1.翻译定语从句.
  2.结合先行词的结构特点和位置特征在关系词之前寻找与定语从句的意思的有逻辑关系相符合的词.
定语从句(下)
二,定语从句里面的关系代词的用法.

  1.常用的关系代词:which, that, who, whom.Whom 现在用的很少.前面有介词只能用 which,不能用 that.
  2.关系代词在考试中的特殊情况. What:
  1)它是子母同体.相当于一个关系代词以及一个先行词.What 前面不应该在出现先行词.如果前面已经偶 一个关系词,就不能用 what 来引导.例如:You can have everything what you like. what=all that,所以这儿不能用 what. All - is a continuous supplying of the basic necessities of life A. what is the need B. the things need C. for our needs D. that is need
  2) what 单独使用,后面不加名词. 例如:She is not what she used to be.
  3) what 后面加名词 例如:What money I have has been given to you. 1997 年考题: he knows about it is out of date and in accurate A. What little.
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B. So much. C. How much. D. So little. as
  1. like
  2.作为
  3. when
  4.引导定语从句.即可引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句.引导限制性定语从句一般式固定用 法.如 as…as, such…as as 引导非限制性定语从句 例如:I was a boy which you know. which 可以用 as 替换. As is so often pointed out knowledge is a two edge weapon which can be used equally for good or evil. as 引导限制性定语从句 考试中往往考固定搭配. 例如:Such a student as works hard were be sure to succeed. than 作为关系代词可以引导定语从句 More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; consequently, children are likely to have less supervision at home was common in the traditional family structure. A. than B. that C. which D. as 特点:
  1) than 作为关系代词引导词在从句中一般必须做主语或者作宾语.
  2) than 前面的主句必须要有比较级
  3)比较级所修饰的名词就是 than 指代的对象 三,关系副词 When 引导的定语从句.
  1)先行词必须是表示时间的名词. Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980 s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers' misfortunes.
  2)如何区分 when 引导的定语从句和状语从句. 用句子表示状语就是状语从句. 例如: When I go to school, I will work hard. 从两方面区分: When 引导的定语从句前一定有表示时间的名词;When 引导的状语语从句前没有有表示时间的名词. 从翻译的角度看如果是引导的定语从句可以不翻译.如果是状语从句就必须翻译成当……时候. When=on which Where where=in which where 引导的从句先行词必须是表示地点的名词.例如: I was born in Beijing where the Olympic games will be held. 先行词表示地点,不一定用 where 来引导.例如: I have never been to Beijing, but it's the place . A. where I'dlike to visit B. in which I'd like to visit C. I most want to visit. D. thar I want to visit it most
名词从句
讲五个问题: 一,名词从句的本质.
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  1.概念:就是把一个完整的句子当一个名词来使用.那么从句就具备了名词所具备的所有性质.主语,宾语,表语,同 位语.
  2.引导名词从句常用的连词.有三类:
  1) that;
  2) whether, if;
  3) when, where, how 等连接副词或 what, who, whose 等连接 代词. That 引导的名词性从句不能做任何句子成分.what 一定在从句中充当主语或者宾语.Which 和 whose 后面必须接 名词.例如: Concerns were raised witness might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ensure guilty verdicts. A. what B. when C. which D. that
  3)多重的名词从句现象.例如: I realized that what I said was not exactly what meant to say.
考题:Prof. Lee's book will show you can be used in other contexts. A. that you have observed B. that how you have observed C. how that you have observed D. how what you have observed
二,名词从句中的主语从句 主语从句有如下几种表示方式:
  1.用 which, that 放在句首引导主语从句.例如: That the seas are being overfished has been known for years.
  3.用 it is +ved+that…例如: It is believed that you are good boy.
  3.用 whether 引导主语从句.例如: Whether the eyes are the windows of the soul is debatable. 三,宾语从句 需要掌握的几点: 及物动词后面的宾语从句.2005 年例句: Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us? 四,表语从句 就是一句话做另一个句子的表语.就是把从句放在系动词的后面.1997 年例句: A report consistently brought back by visits to the US is how friendly, cautious and hopeful most Americans were to them. 五,同位语从句 就是用来补充说明同位语的名词成分的句子.结构是:名词+that+从句. 同位语从句与宾语从句和定语从句的区别:引导宾语从句和定语从句的的 that, which 可以省略,而引导同位语从句的 that 不能省略.定语从句中的 that 必须在从句中扮演主语或者宾语.同位语从句的 that 不扮演任何成分.例如: There is a popular saying that family instability causes social instability. that 不做句子成分.
状语从句(上)
第三讲状语从句(上) 一,状语从句的本质.就是用一个句子来作另外一个句子的状语. 状语从句的分类:时间状语,地点状语,原因状语,结果状语,目的状语,条件状语,让步状语,比较状语,方 式状语. 2005 年例句 Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers. A. when B. since C. for D. whereas 难点:
  1. When
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常考的句型:Hardly…when; when it comes that; when it comes to;1991 年例句: to speak when the audience interrupted him. A. Hardly had he begun B. No sooner hardly had he begun. C. Not until he begin D. Scarcely had he begin. 1998 年例句: Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true it comes to classroom tests. A. before B. as C. since D. when
  2.地点状语从句 Where 引导地点状语一般总是放在主句的后面.例如: A driver should slower down where there are schools.
  3.原因状语从句 Since 从……起;因为…… 比较特殊的连词:in that 因为的意思.例句:The girl is like her mother in that she also has very delicate feeling. Now that…因为;given that…
  4.目的状语从句 lest…唯恐,害怕; for fear 当心,害怕引导的是虚拟语气.谓语是 should +动词原形.should 常省略.
  5.结果状语从句有两种引导法 so…that; so that; such…that; such that 2001 年例句: Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends so much time listening and being talked to it has all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itself. A. as B. which C. that D. what 把 so…that; so that; such…that; such that 中的 so 或 such 放在句首形成倒装句.例如: So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine it's speed. to the extent (that)表示结果 to some extent 表示在……之内.在某种程度上
  6.条件状语从句用 unless; if 引导 难点:only if; if only only if 是"只有"的意思; if only 是"只要"意思.2000 年例句: He can continue to support himself and his family he produces a surplus. A. only if B. much as C. long before D. ever since 要记住:supposing (that)…; provided (that)…; on condition that… 例如:He will surely finished job on time he has left to do it in his own way. A. in that B. in case C. as far as D. so long as
状语从句(下)

  7.让步状语从句 although; though; even if; even though 1997 年例句: its economy continues to recover, the US is increasingly becoming a nation of part timers and temporary workers. A. Even though B. Now that C. If only D. Provided that.
2004 年例句:All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.
A. provided B. since C. although D. supposing 表示让步转折的介词:in spite of; despite 例如: what he achieved in medicine he remained modest. A. Despite B. Although C. If D. Whereas. However; nevertheless; nonetheless 1998 年例句:This view; , is generally thought to be wrong. A. however B. meanwhile C. therefore D. more over
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While 当……时候;然而,但是 重点:与 as 有关的让步状语从句 由 as 引导的倒装句 adj., adv.,分词,名词,短语+as+主语+谓语. 例如:Child as he is, he can remember a lot of things. as 或 so+adj+as+主谓结构 例如:As much as John hates to do it, he must stay at home and study tonight.
  8.比较状语从句 重点讲倍数为题
  1.倍数+比较级 A is three times bigger than B.
  2.倍数+as…as 结构.A is three times as big as B.
  3.倍数+名词结构 A is Three times the size of B. No more than 特点:
  1. No more than=not any more than
  2.从功能上看往往表示两个事物之间的类比关系.
  3.从意义上看是和……一样. Not so much as 结构上有两种
  1. Not A so much as B.
  2. not so much as B.与其说 A,不如说 B. 例如:It wasn't so much that I disliked her that I just wasn't interested in the whole business. A. rather B. so C. than D. as
并列句
一,并列句 并列句的结构要从后面往前找.例如: I like apples from Japan and bananas. and 可以连接两个并列的词语,短语,句子成分,从句以及句子.
  1.有 and 就肯定有并列.有并列就一定要弄清楚并列的成分.
  2. and 有并列.但并列在考研中有几十种情况.要根据每一种不同的并列进行不同的处理.
  3.有 and 的并列就要从 and 的后面往前找,而不是从前面往后找. 二,定语后置 She is a beautiful girl. 一个形容词定语就相当于一个 of 引导的名词作后置定语.上句可写成 She is a girl of beauty.
插入语
插入语 能够从句子中拿出来而不影响整个句子主谓结构的部分就是插入语.插入语与同谓语的区别:插入语往往是 插在主谓之间.例如:I am an ugly man.可换成 I am a man who is ugly. 还可换成 I ,who is a man, am ugly.
  1.从命题角度来看插入语的两个逗号就相当于两个括号.表示对插入语前面的解释和说明.
  2.从长难句的处理角度来看. 插入语扮演的角色就是可以作为整体提出来放到一边最后处理, 就是直接把插入 语翻译后放在括号里. 分词现象 主要有四种考法.(略) 插入语
语法应用上
考研中不一定专门考语法.主要是应用语法知识进行阅读,完型,写作等等.关键就是运用语法处理长难句. 例如:She, who is her mother's daughter, is a girl of beauty which is envied by lily who is of ugliness which we all know.
新东方考研语法
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剥洋葱似的分析句子的方法和步骤:
  1.以句号为单元判断这个句子中有几个洋葱.
  1)看句号句
 

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