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2012 考研英语阅读基础讲义
主讲:王国清副教授 简介:著名考研、四、六级辅导专家,英语翻译专业硕士,新西兰惠灵顿大学国际 经济博士,多次参加考研及四、六级阅卷工作,全国二十多家大型培训机构 特邀全程主讲老师,MBA、MPA 教育中心首席主讲,2008 年北京奥运会赛后新 闻发布会同声传译,并从事雅思、托福等多种培训权威指导,培训的学员达 数十几万之多,授课效果立竿见影、专业性强、重点突出、激情幽默,著有 《考研语法重难点精解》、《考研红宝书英语写作?(图画+话题)180 篇》、 《考研英语最后五套题》、《考研英语正红版最后两套题》、《考研英语正 红版写作重点 30 篇》、 《四、六级写作》、 《四、六级阅读方法概要》、 《大 学英语四、六级经典语法指南》等 30 多部丛书,堪称英语界“语法权威”, 翻译界“金牌同传”。
第一部分 阅读理解基础精练
Passage?1? Questions?1?to?5?are?based?in?the?following?passage.? Language? learning? begins? with? listening.? Individual? children? very? greatly? in? the? amount? of? listening?they?do?before?they?start?speaking,?and?late?starters?are?often?long?listeners.?Most?children? will?“obey”?spoken?instructions?some?time?before?they?can?speak,?though?the?word?“obey”?is?hardly? accurate?as?a?description?of?the?eager?and?delighted?cooperation?usually?shown?by?the?child.?Before? they?can?speak,?many?children?will?also?ask?questions?by?gestures?and?by?making?questioning?noises.? Any?attempt?to?trace?the?development?from?the?noises?babies?make?to?their?first?spoken?words? leads?to?considerable?difficulties.?It?is?agreed?that?they?enjoy?making?noises?and?that?during?the?first? few? months? one? or? two? noises? sort? themselves? out? as? particularly? indicative? of? delight? distress,? sociability,?and?so?on.?But?since?these?cannot?be?said?to?show?the?baby’s?intention?to?communicate,? they? can? hardly? be? regarded? as? early? forms? of? language.? It? is? agreed,? too,? that? from? about? there? months?they?play?with?sounds?for?enjoyment,?and?that?by?six?months?they?are?able?to?add?new?sounds? to?their.?This?self?imitation?leads?on?to?deliberate?imitation?of?sounds?made?or?words?spoken?to?them? by?other?people.?The?problem?then?arisen?so?to?the?point?at?which?one?can?say?that?these?imitations? can?be?considered?as?speech.?
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It? is? a? problem? we? need? not? get? our? teeth? into.? The? meaning? of? a? word? depends? on? what? a? particular?person?means?by?it?in?a?particular?situation;?and?it?is?clear?that?what?a?child?means?by?a?word? will?change?as?he?gains?more?experience?of?the?world.?Thus?the?use,?at?say?seven?months,?of?“mama”? as?a?greeting?for?his?mother,?cannot?be?dismissed?as?a?meaningless?sound?simply?because?he?also?uses? it?at?other?times?for?his?father,?his?dog,?or?anything?else?he?likes.? Playful?and?apparently?meaningless?imitation?on?what?other?people?say?continues?after?the?child? has?begun?to?speak?for?himself?I?doubt,?however,?whether?anything?is?gained?when?parents?cash?in?on? this?ability?in?an?attempt?to?teach?new?sounds.?
  1.Children?who?start?speaking?late? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .? A)?may?have?problems?with?their?hearing? B)?usually?pay?close?attention?to?what?they?hear? C)?often?take?a?long?time?in?learning?to?listen?properly? D)?probably?do?not?hear?enough?language?spoken?around?them?
  2.According?to?the?second?paragraph,?a?baby’s?first?noises?are? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A)?a?sign?that?he?means?to?tell?you?something? ? B)?a?reflection?of?his?moods?and?feelings? C)?an?imitation?of?the?spoken?of?adults? D)?an?early?form?of?language?
  3.The?problem?of?deciding?at?what?point?a?baby’s?imitations?can?be?considered?as?speech? ? ? ? ? ? ? .? A)?is?not?especially?important?because?the?change?takes?place?gradually? ? B)?is?important?because?words?have?different?meanings?for?different?people? C)?is?one?that?can?never?be?properly?understood?because?the?meaning?of?words?changes?with?age? D)?is?one?that?should?be?completely?ignored?because?children’s?use?of?words?in?often?meaningless?
  4.It?is?implied?in?the?passage?that? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .? A)?parents?can?never?hope?to?teach?their?children?new?sounds? B)?children?no?longer?imitate?people?after?they?being?to?speak? ? C)?even?after?they?have?learnt?to?speak?children?still?enjoy?imitating? ? D)?children?who?are?good?at?imitating?learn?new?words?more?quickly?
  5.It?can?be?inferred?from?the?passage?that?when?a?7?month?baby?calls?his?or?her?mother?“mama”?.? A)?he?probably?has?known?that?mother?should?be?called?in?this?way? B)?he?probably?does?not?know?the?sound?stands?for?“mother”? C)?he?probably?has?already?know?the?meaning?of?mama? D)?it?is?the?first?meaningful?sound?pronounced?by?him? Passage?2? Questions?1?to?5?are?based?on?the?following?passage.? Although?Beethoven?could?sit?down?and?make?up?music?easily,?his?really?great?compositions?did? not?come?easily?at?all.?They?cost?him?a?great?deal?of?hard?work.?We?know?now?often?he?rewrote?and? corrected?his?work?because?his?notebooks?are?still?kept?in?museums?and?libraries.?He?always?found?it? hard?to?satisfy?himself.? When?he?was?28,?the?worst?difficulty?of?all?came?to?him.?He?began?to?notice?a?strange?humming?in?
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his?ears.?At?first?he?paid?little?attention,?but?it?grew?worse,?and?last?he?consulted?doctors.?They?gave? him?the?worst?news?any?musician?can?bear.?He?was?gradually?going?deaf.?Beethoven?was?in?despair,?he? was?sure?that?he?was?going?to?die.? He? went? away? to? the? country,? to? a? place? called? Heiligenstadt,? and? from? there? he? wrote? a? long? farewell?letter?to?his?brothers.?In?this?letter?he?told?them?how?depressed?and?lonely?his?deafness?had? made? him.? “It? was? impossible? for? me? to? ask? men? to? speak? louder? or? shout,? for? I? am? an? deaf,? ”he? ? wrote? “How? could? I? possibly? admit? an? infirmity(残废)? in? the? one? sense? (hearing)which? should? have? been?more?perfect?in?me?than?in?others…??I?must?live?like?an?exile.”?He?longed?to?die,?and?said?to?death,? “Come?when?you?will.?I?shall?meet?you?bravely.”? In?fact,?Beethoven?did?something?braver?than?dying.?He?gathered?his?courage?and?went?on?writing? music,?though?he?could?hear?what?he?wrote?only?more?and?more?faintly.?He?wrote?his?best?music,?the? music?we?remember?him?for,?after?he?became?deaf.?The?music?he?wrote?was?very?different?from?any? that?had?been?composed?before.?Instead?of?the?elegant?and?stately?music?that?earlier?musicians?had? written? for? their? wealthy? listeners,? Beethoven? wrote? stormy,? exciting,? revolutionary? music,? which? reminds? us? of? his? troubled? and? courageous? more? than? anything,? and? he? called? one? of? a? great? man.? Describing?the?dramatic?opening?notes?of?his?famous?Fifth?Symphony,?he?said,?“?Thus?fate?knocks?on? the?door.”? In?time?Beethoven?went?completely?deaf,?He?was?lonely?and?often?unhappy,?but?in?spite?of?this,? he?often?wrote?joyful?music.?In?his?last?symphony,?the?Ninth,?a?choir?sings?a?wonderful?Hymn?of?Joy.? Because? of? his? courage? and? determination? to? overcome? his? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? terrible?disaster,?his?music?has?given?joy?and?inspiration?to?millions?of?people.
  1.In?the?first?paragraph?we?are?told?that?Beethoven?found?that?writing?great?music? ? ? ? ? ? ? .? A)?was?easy? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? B)?was?difficult? ? C)?was?straightforward? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D)?easily?satisfied?him?
  2.Beethoven?knew?that?he?was?going?deaf? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A)?when?he?could?not?hear?himself?humming?a?tune? ? ? ? ? ? ? B)?when?he?heard?a?humming?noise? C)?when?the?humming?noise?grew?louder? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D)?when?the?doctor?told?him?
  3.After?he?wrote?a?long?farewell?letter?to?his?brothers,?Beethoven? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .? A)?died?bravely? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? B)wrote?more?faintly? ? C)?courageously?continued?to?write?music? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D)regained?his?hearing?
  4.Which?of?these?words?best?describes?Beethoven’s?music?when?his?hearing?began?to?fail?? A)?Stately.? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? B)?Turbulent.? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? C)?Elegant? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D)?Loud?
  5.Which?of?the?following?titles?best?sums?up?the?whole?passage?? A)?The?story?of?Beethoven’s?life? ? ? ? ? ? B)?Beethoven?becomes?deaf? C)?The?music?of?Beethoven? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D)?Beethoven’s?courageous?triumph?over?tragedy? Passage?3? Questions?1?to?5?are?based?on?the?following?passage.? ? ? ? ? With?only?about?1,000?pandas?left?in?the?world,?China?is?desperately?trying?to?clone?the?animal? and?save?the?endangered?species.?That’s?move?similar?to?what?a?Texas?A&M?University?researcher?has?
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been?undertaking?for?the?past?five?years?in?a?project?called?“Noah’”.? ? ? ? ? Noah’s?Ark?is?aimed?at?collecting?eggs,?embryos,?semina?(精子)?and?DNA?of?endangered?animals? and?storing?them?in?liquid?nitrogen (液态氮) .?If?certain?species?should?become?extinct,?Kraemer?says? there?would?be?enough?of?the?basic?building?blocks?to?reintroduce?the?species?in?the?future.? ? ? ? ? It?is?estimated?that?as?many?as?2,000?species?of?mammals,?birds?and?reptiles?will?become?extinct? over?the?next?100?years.?The?panda,?native?only?to?China,?is?in?danger?of?becoming?extinct?in?the?next? 25?years.? ? ? ? ? This?week,?Chinese?scientists?said?they?grew?and?embryo?by?introducing?cells?from?a?dead?female? panda?into?the?egg?cells?of?a?Japanese?white?rabbit.?They?are?now?trying?to?implant?the?embryo?into?a? host?animal.?The?entire?procedure?could?take?from?three?to?five?years?to?accomplish.? “The?nuclear?transfer?of?one?species?to?another?is?not?easy,?and?the?lack?of?available?panda?eggs? could? be? a? major? problem,”? Kraemer? believes,? “They? will? probably? have? to? do? several? hundred? transfers? to? result? in? one? pregnancy.? It? takes? a? long? time? and? it’s? difficult,? but? this? could? be? groundbreaking? science? if? it? works.? They? are? certainly? not? putting? any? live? pandas? at? risk,? so? it? is? worth?the?effort,?”adds?Kraemer,?who?is?one?of?the?leaders?of?the?Missyplicity?Project?at?Texas?A&M,? the?first?ever?attempt?at?cloning?a?dog.? “They?are?trying?to?do?something?that’s?never?been?done.?And?this?is?very?similar?to?our?work?in? Noah’s?Ark.?We’re?both?trying?to?save?animals?that?face?extinction.?I?certainly?applaud?their?effort?and? there’s? lot? we? can? learn? from? what? they? are? attempting? to? do.? It’s? a? research? that? is? very? much? needed.”?
  1.The?goal?of?“Noah’s?Ark”?Project?is?to? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .? A)?make?efforts?to?clone?the?endangered?panda? B)?save?endangered?animals?from?extinction? C)?implant?embryo?into?a?host?animal? D)?collect?DNA?of?endangered?animals?to?study?
  2.According?to?Professor?Kraemer,?the?main?problem?in?cloning?pandas?would?be?the?lack?of? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A)?host?animals? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? B)funds? C)available?panda?eggs? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D)?qualified?researchers?
  3.The?word?“groundbreaking”?(Line?3,?Para?
  5)?can?be?best?replaced?by? ? ? ? ? ? ? .? A)?pioneering? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? B)evolutionary? ? ? ? ? ? ? C)unimaginable? ? ? ? ? ? D)epoch?making?
  4.In?Kraemer’s?opinion.?If?some?species
 

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