2012 考研英语风
20112011-1-26 一、励志美文
食品安全问题催生“自办农场” 食品安全问题催生“自办农场”
近来,假冒和有毒的白酒、蘑菇、米粉、牛奶和食用油等伪劣产品的出现让中国消费者感到担忧。食品 安全是中国的一大问题,连政府机构都开始自己种菜吃。 中国政府承诺会采取更严厉的处罚、更大力度的监管以及更高的透明度,但是,公众需要令人信服的事 实。据《小康》杂志社和清华大学媒介调查实验室最近公布的调查显示,有近 70%的中国消费者对食品安全 感到担忧。 现在,有些个人和公司开始采取行动确保饭桌上的食物是适于食用的。 越来越多的人开始建立或者加盟 遵照美国“社区支持农业(CSA)”模式运作的有机农场。 2010 年 12 月,原先从事旅游行业的何屏儒(音)在广东佛山开办了一个有机农场,他说,有近 3000 人与他 签约,他定期向他们供应应季蔬菜。 他说:“食品安全在中国是一个严重的问题,并不是商店里所有的所谓有机 食品都是真正有机的。” 28 岁的石嫣 2008 年在美国明尼苏达州的农场工作了 6 个月,她说,CSA 模式令她深受启发。尽管毕业 于中国著名的学府,但她还是选择了当农民,这令她的父母非常震惊。 2009 年,她在北京郊区开办了小毛驴农场。石嫣说,别人也会有开办农场的类似计划。但是我们的目的 不是赚钱,而是让农民不要离开自己的土地,并让城里人意识到保护我们的地球和土地的重要性”。 她说,中国约有 40 个“真正的”CSA 农场。上个月在北京举行的 CSA 会议吸引了 250 多人。 石嫣说,越来越多的中国公司开始效仿政府部门建立自己的农场。在佛山,何屏儒的会员中就有国有的 电信和电力公司、房地产开发商。他说,他们都需要安全、高品质的食品。 在上海附近的崇明岛,一亩田有机农场的经理说,他们农场的 2700 名会员中有 27 家是公司,而且大多是 国有公司,比两年前刚开办时增加了 60%。 他说:“我发现,公司购买我们的食物是因为中国令人不安的食品安全问题。 另外,他们也想通过提供绿色 有机食品来留住自己的员工。” 世界卫生组织驻北京食品安全问题专家彼得?本?安巴雷克说,非农业的中国公司建立自己的农场“表明
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情况不对。这不能解决中国的食品安全问题,也缺乏效率”。 安巴雷克说,中国现在非常重视食品安全问题,并颁布了首部食品安全法。 但是,要做的还很多,比如,教育 消费者,减少不合格食品生产商的数量,以及精简机构。 在中国的 15 万名食品检查员中,“很多都是不合格的”, 因为他们缺乏足够的专业技能。
二、写作练习
时间就是金钱
三、词汇与阅读练习
China's organic farms rooted in food-safety concerns
It's quite a shopping list ? wine, mushrooms, bean curd, rice noodles, dairy drinks and cooking oil ? but buyer beware. In recent months, fake or toxic batches of all these items have worried Chinese consumers nationwide and are a reminder that food safety is a major issue in a country where even government agencies have food grown for their staffs to avoid problems. China's government promises tougher penalties, better supervision and greater transparency, yet the public will take some convincing. Almost 70% of China's consumers feel insecure about food safety, according to a survey released recently by Insight China Magazine and the Tsinghua University Media Survey Lab. Now some individuals and companies are taking action to ensure the produce on their dining tables, or in
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work canteens, is fit to eat. A small but growing number of people are starting or joining organic farms that abide by the community-supported agriculture (CSA) model being used in the USA. Tourism-researcher-turned-organic-farmer He Pinru opened his Foshan Leyang farm in December, in southern China's Guangdong province. He says almost 3,000 people have signed up for regular deliveries of seasonal vegetables. "Food safety is a serious problem in China, and not all the so-called organic foods in shops are really organic," He says. Shi Yan, 28, a rural development expert, says she was inspired by the CSA model when working for six months in 2008 at the Earthrise farm in Madison, Minn. Shi says she shocked her parents by choosing the life of a peasant despite her degrees from a top Chinese university. At the Little Donkey Farm, which she opened in 2009 in Beijing's semi-rural suburbs, Shi hears from other people planning similar projects. "Their first question is usually 'Can I make money from this?' " Shi says. "The purpose is not making money, but sustaining farmers on the land, and teaching city people the importance of protecting our planet and the soil." China has about 40 "real" CSA farms, she says. A CSA conference in Beijing last month attracted more than 250 people. At Shi's farm, about 100 members pay to work their own plot of land and 500 members pay a $600 annual fee for a weekly supply of vegetables grown without the chemical fertilizers and pesticides used on most Chinese farms. Interest in safer foods in China has soared since milk powder doctored with the industrial chemical melamine killed six babies and sickened 300,000 in 2008, Shi says. A growing number of Chinese companies have started their own farms, following the example of government departments that have operated dedicated supply chains for years, Shi says. In Foshan, He Pinru's members include state-owned telecommunications and power companies, and real estate developers, who want to offer safe, good-quality food at employee canteens, he says. On Chongming Island near Shanghai, Fang Ming, manager of the organic Yimutian Farm, counts 27 companies, mostly state-owned, among its 2,700 members, up from 60 at its launch two years ago. "I found companies buy our food due to poor food safety in China, as there are too many fertilizers used on vegetables and too many food additives," he says. "They also want to offer green, organic food as a way to unite employees." Non-agricultural Chinese companies starting their own farms are "a sign that things are not right. It's not efficient, and it's not solving the problems of food safety in China," says Peter Ben Embarek, a Beijing-based food-safety expert at the World Health Organization. Beijing has made food safety a high priority and put in place the nation's first food-safety law in 2009, Embarek says. More must be done to educate consumers, reduce the number of unqualified food producers, and streamline the various agencies involved in food safety, he says. Among China's 150,000 food inspectors "many are not up to the job," as they lack sufficient technical and scientific skills, he says. In November, melamine resurfaced in contaminated dairy drinks in Hunan province despite several government crackdowns since the milk powder scandal in 20
  08. Exported Chinese pet-food ingredients containing melamine ? an organic chemical widely used in plastics, adhesives and countertops ? killed or harmed hundreds of U.S. pets in 20
  07. Chinese companies have been caught using melamine in food to fabricate higher protein content. Such food-safety problems prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to establish three offices in China in 20
  08. Christopher Hickey, FDA China country director, welcomes the 2009 law because it is designed to improve exported food as well, but he warns, "It remains to be seen how strictly this law will be enforced." The arrests of Chinese who alert officials to food problems show that the Chinese government is not entirely behind the safety effort, critics say. Zhao Lianhai, the father of a boy sickened by tainted milk powder, was jailed
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and later paroled in December for his activism on behalf of other parents. United Nations official Olivier De Schutter recently criticized the prosecution of food-safety activists. "I'm nervous sometimes and very careful about what I do," says Beijing lawyer Sang Liwei, who took part in drafting the food-safety law. He says he avoids cases with multiple plaintiffs because the government is sensitive about large disputes. At Little Donkey Farm, computer salesman Liu Chunsheng picked up a box of vegetables and praised the produce, which can cost 50% above market prices. "The food in many markets can't be trusted. Nothing is more important than my family's health."
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