2012 考研英语基础阶段测试题及答案
万学海文
考试时间: 考试时间:180 分钟 学员姓名: 学员姓名: 满分: 满分:100 分 卡号: 卡号: B、督促参加 、 主管咨询师: 主管咨询师: 是否学数学: 是否学数学: C、强制参加) (以上内容请写在答题纸上) 、强制参加 以上内容请写在答题纸上)
参加考试类型:(A、 参加考试类型 、自愿参加
Section I
Vocabulary and Structure
Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (20 points) Example: I have been to the Great Wall three times 19
  79. [A] from [B] after [C] for [D] since The sentence should read, “I have been to the Great Wall three times since 19
  79.” Therefore, you should choose [D].
  1. I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time b the last bus. [A] to have caught [B] to catch [C] catching [D] having caught
  2. As it turned out to be a small house party, we d so formally. [A] needn’t dress up [B] did not need have dressed up [C] did not need dress up [D] needn’t have dressed up
  3. I apologize if I d you, but I assure you it was unintentional. [A] offend [B] had offended [C] should have offended [D] might have offended
  4. Although a teenager, Fred could resist a what to do and what not to do. [A] to be told [B] having been told [C] being told [D] to have been told
  5. Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage c avoided. [A] is to be [B] can be [C] will be [D] has been
  6. Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true d it comes to classroom tests. [A] before [B] as [C] since [D] when
  7. There are over 100 night schools in the city, making it possible for a professional to be re-educated no matter c he does. [A] how [B] where [C] what [D] when
  8. I’ve kept up a friendship with a girl whom I was at school d twenty years ago. [A] about [B] since [C] till [D] with

  9. He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, insufficiently popular with all members. [A] being considered [B] considering [C] to be considered [D] having considered
  10. for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is. [A] Had it not been [B] Were it not [C] Be it not [D] Should it not be
  11. Please yourself from smoking and spitting in public places, since the law forbids them. [A] restrain [B] hinder [C] restrict [D] prohibit
  12. Without telephone it would be impossible to carry on the functions of every business operation in the whole country. [A] practically [B] preferably [C] precisely [D] presumably
  13. Preliminary estimation puts the figure at around $110 billion, the $160 billion the President is struggling to get through the Congress. [A] in proportion to [B] in reply to [C] in relation to [D] in contrast to
  14. He is planning another tour abroad, yet his passport will at the end of this month. [A] expire [B] exceed [C] terminate [D] cease
  15. All the off-shore oil explorers were in high spirits as they read letters from their families. [A] sentimental [B] affectionate [C] intimate [D] sensitive
  16. Several international events in the early 1990s seem likely to , or at least weaken, the trends that emerged in the 1980s. [A] revolt [B] revolve [C] reverse [D] revive
  17. I was unaware of the critical points involved, so my choice was quite . [A] arbitrary [B] rational [C] mechanical [D] unpredictable
  18. The local people were joyfully surprised to find the price of vegetables no longer according to the weather. [A] altered [B] converted [C] fluctuated [D] modified
  19. The pursuit of leisure on the part of the employees will certainly not their prospect of promotion. [A] spur [B] further [C] induce [D] reinforce
  20. In what to a last minute stay of execution, a council announced that emergency funding would keep alive two aging satellites. [A] applies [B] accounts [C] attaches [D] amounts
Section II
Cloze Test
Directions: For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C], [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the
brackets with a pencil. (10 points) Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They __21__ that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the __22__ man. But they insisted that its __23__ results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the __24__ of the English population. _25__ contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to 1750, when England was still a __26__ agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity. This view, __27__, is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists __28__ history and economics, have __29__ two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was __30__ by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.
  21. [A]admitted
  22. [A] plain
  23. [A]momentary
  24. [A] bulk
  25. [A] On
  26. [A] broadly
  27. [A] however
  28. [A] at
  29. [A]manifested
  30. [A] noted [B]believed [B] average [B] prompt [B] host [B] With [B]thoroughly [B]meanwhile [B] in [B]approved [B] impressed [C] claimed [C] mean [C] instant [C] gross [C] For [C]generally [C] therefore [C] about [C] shown [C] labeled [D] predicted [D] normal [D]immediate [D] magnitude [D] By [D]completely [D] moreover [D] for [D] speculated [D] marked
Section III
Reading Comprehension
Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (40 points) Text 1 Few creations of big technology capture the imagination like giant dams. Perhaps it is humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the idea of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating. But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. Several giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good. The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful. It doesn’t help that building a big, powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves. Egypt’s leadership in the Arab world was cemented by the Aswan High Dam. Turkey’s bid for First World status includes the giant Ataturk Dam. But big dams tend not to work as intended. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left?all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity. And yet, the myth of controlling the waters persists. This week, in the heart of civilized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube. The huge complex will probably have all the usual problems of big dams. But Slovakia is bidding for independence from the Czechs, and now needs a dam to prove itself. Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go-ahead to the even more wrong-headed Narmada Dam. And the bank has done this even though its advisors say the dam will cause hardship for the powerless and environmental destruction. The benefits are for the powerful, but they are far from guaranteed.
Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the cost and benefits of controlling water can help to resolve these conflicts. Hydroelectric power and flood control and irrigation are possible without building monster dams. But when you are dealing with myths, it is hard to be either proper, or scientific. It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan. You don’t need a dam to be saved.
  31. The third sentence of paragraph 1 implies that . [A] people would be happy if they shut their eyes to reality [B] the blind could be happier than the sighted [C] over-excited people tend to neglect vital things [D] fascination makes people lose their eyesight
  32. In paragraph 5, “the powerless” probably refers to . [A] areas short of electricity [B] dams without power stations [C] poor countries around India [D] common people in the Narmada Dam area
  33. What is the myth concerning giant dams? [A] They bring in more fertile soil. [B] They help defend the country. [C] They strengthen international ties. [D] They have universal control of the waters.
  34. What the author tries to suggest may best be interpreted as . [A] “It’s no use crying over spilt milk” [B] “More haste, less speed” [C] “Look before you leap” [D] “He who laughs last laughs best” Text 2 Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real. The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and services together, productivity has grown on average by
  1.2% since 19
  87. That is somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-1987 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a “disjunction” between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics. Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace?all that re-engineering and downsizing?are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much. Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose. Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much “re-engineering” has been crude. In many cases, he believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many
companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long term profitability. BBDO’s Al Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of re-engineering consultants as mere rubbish?“the worst sort of ambulance cashing.”
  35. According to the author, the American economic situation is . [A] not as good as it seems [B] at its turning point [C] much better than it seems [D] near to complete recovery
  36. The official statistics on productivity growth . [A] exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle [B] fall short of businessmen’s anticipation [C] meet the expectation of business people [D] fail to reflect the true state of economy
  37. The author raises the question “what about pain without gain?” because . [A] he questions the truth of “no gain without pain” [B] he does not think the productivity revolution works [C] he wonders if the official statistics are misleading [D] he has conclusive evidence for the revival of businesses
  38. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage? [A] Radical reforms are essential for the increase of productivity. [B] New ways of organizing workplaces may help to increase productivity. [C] The reduction of costs is not a sure way to gain long term profitability. [D] The consultants are a bunch of good-for-nothings. Text 3 Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture. Think of Gallileo’s 17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake’s harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton. The schism between science and the humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century. Until recently, the scientific community was so powerful that it could afford to ignore its critics?but no longer. As funding for science has declined, scientists have attacked “anti-science” in several books, notably Higher Superstition, by Paul R. Gross, a biologist at the University of Virginia, and Norman Levitt, a mathemati
 

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