2012 考研《英语》基础阶段模拟试题及详解(
  2) 考研《英语》基础阶段模拟试题及详解( )

  1.本试卷考试时间 150 分钟,满分 100 分。

  2.试卷后面附有参考答案,供学员测试后核对。 中文考研-www.zwky.org
Section I Structure and Vocabulary
In each question, decide which of the four choices given will most suitably complete the sentence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choice on the answer sheet. (20 p oints)

  1. A variety of small clubs can provide opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful group dynamics.
[A] durable [B] excessive [C] surplus [D] multiple

  2. By turning this knob to the right you can the sound from this radio.
[A] amplify [B] enlarge [C] magnify [D] reinforce

  3. Under the confronting them it was impossible to continue the strike any lon ger.
[A] surroundings [B] settings [C] circumstances [D] environments

  4. We have the system of exploitation of man by man.
[A] cancelled [B] abolished [C] refused [D] rejected

  5. We shall probably never be able to the exact nature of these sub-atomic pa rticles.
[A] assert [B] impart [C] ascertain [D] notify

  6. This diploma that you have completed high school.
[A] proves [B] certifies [C] secures [D] approves

  7. Up until that time, his interest had focused almost on fully mastering the s kills and techniques of his craft.
[A] restrictively [B] radically [C] inclusively [D] exclusively

  8. That sound doesn’t in his language so it’s difficult for him to pronounce.
[A] happen [B] take place [C] occur [D] run

  9. The security guard two men who were yelling in the courtroom.
[A] expelled [B] propelled [C] repelled [D] dispelled

  10. In most cases politicians are as they seldom tell the truth.
[A] credible [B] credulous [C] incredulous [D] incredible

  11. He soon received promotion, for his superiors realized that he was a man of con siderable .
[A] future [B] possibility [C] ability [D] opportunity

  12. Britain has the highest of road traffic in the world?over 60 cars for ever y mile of road.
[A] density [B] intensity [C] popularity [D] prosperity

  13. CCTV programs are by satellite to the remotest areas in the country.
[A] transferred [B] transported [C] transformed [D] transmitted

  14. An energy tax would curb ordinary air pollution, limit oil imports and cut the bu dget .
[A] disposition [B] deficit [C] defect [D] discrepancy

  15. The government will a reform in the educational system.
[A] initiate [B] initial [C] initiative [D] intimate

  16. Estimates anywhere from 600 000 to 3 million. Although the figure may v ary, analysts do agree on another mater: that the number of the homeless is increasing. O ne of the federal government’s studies predicts that the number of the homeless will reach nearly 19 million by the end of this decade.
[A] cover [B] change [C] differ [D] range

  17. As time went by, computers became smaller and more powerful, and they becam e “personal” too, as well as institutional, with display becoming sharper and storage increasing.
[A] ability [B] capability [C] capacity [D] faculty

  18. It soon becomes clear that the interior designer’s most important basic is t he function of the particular space. For example, a theater with poor sight lines, poor sou nd-shaping qualities, and too few entries and exits will not work for its purpose, no matte r how beautifully it might be decorated.
[A] care [B] concern [C] attention [D] intention

  19. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more mysterious. The new experiments, s uch as those for the first time at a recent meeting or the society for Sleep Researc h in Minneapolis, suggest fascinating explanations for the purpose of non-REM sleep.
[A] maintained [B] described [C] settled [D] afforded

  20. Changes in the social structure may indirectly juvenile crime rates. For exa mple, changes in the economy that lead to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising u nemployment in general make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain.
[A] affect [B] reduce [C] check [D] reflect
Section II Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mar k [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
Health implies more than physical fitness. It also implies mental and emotional well-b eing. An angry, frustrated, emotionally 21 person in good physical condition is not 22 hea lthy. Mental health, therefore, has much to do 23 how a person copes with the world as s/he exists. Many of the factors that 24 physical health also affect mental and emotional well-being.
Having a good self-image means that people have positive 25 pictures and good, posi tive feelings about themselves, about what they are capable 26 , and about the roles they play. People with good self-images like themselves, and they are 27 like others. Having a good self-image is based 28 a realistic, as well as positive, or optimistic 29 of one’s ow n worth and value and capabilities.
Stress is an unavoidable, necessary, and potentially healthful 30 of our society. People of all ages 31 stress. Children begin to 32 stress during prenatal development and during childbirth. Examples of stress-inducing 33 in the life of a young person are death of a p et, pressure to 34 academically, the divorce of parents, or joining a new youth group. The different ways in which individuals 35 to stress may bring healthful or unhealthy results. One person experiencing a great deal of stress may function exceptionally well 36 anothe r may be unable to function at all. If stressful situations are continually encountered, the i ndividual’s physical, social, and mental health are eventually affected.
Satisfying social relations are vital to 37 mental and emotional health. It is believed t hat in order to 38 , develop, and maintain effective and fulfilling social relationships peop le must 39 the ability to know and trust each other, understand each other, influence, and help each other. They must also be capable of 40 conflicts in a constructive way.

  21. [A] unstable [B] unsure [C] imprecise [D] impractical

  22. [A] normally [B] generally [C] virtually [D] necessarily

  23. [A] on [B] at [C] to [D] with

  24. [A] signify [B] influence [C] predict [D] mark

  25. [A] intellectual [B] sensual [C] spiritual [D] mental

  26. [A] to be doing [B] with doing [C] to do [D] of doing

  27. [A] able better to [B] able to better [C] better to able [D] better able to

  28. [A] on [B] from [C] at [D] about

  29. [A] assessment [B] decision [C] determination [D] assistance

  30. [A] ideality [B] realization [C] realism [D] reality

  31. [A] occur [B] engage [C] confront [D] encounter

  32. [A] tolerate [B] sustain [C] experience [D] undertake

  33. [A] evidence [B] accidents [C] adventures [D] events

  34. [A] acquire [B] achieve [C] obtain [D] fulfill

  35. [A] respond [B] return [C] retort [D] reply

  36. [A] why [B] when [C] while [D] where

  37. [A] sound [B] all-round [C] entire [D] whole

  38. [A] illuminate [B] enunciate [C] enumerate [D] initiate

  39. [A] access [B] assess [C] process [D] possess

  40. [A] resolving [B] saluting [C] dissolving [D] solving
Section III Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D] Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET (40 points)
Text 1
The period of adolescence, i.e., the period between childhood and adulthood, may be long or short, depending on social expectations and on society’s definition as to what con stitutes maturity and adulthood. In primitive societies adolescence is frequently a relatively short period of time, while in industrial societies with patterns of prolonged education co upled with laws against child labor, the period of adolescence is much longer and may in clude most of the second decade of one’s life. Furthermore, the length of the adolescent p eriod and the definition of adulthood status may change in a given society as social and economic conditions change. Examples of this type of change are the disappearance of the frontier in the latter part of the nineteenth century in the United States, and more univer sally, the industrialization of an agricultural society.
In modern society, ceremonies for adolescence have lost their formal recognition and symbolic significance and there no longer is agreement as to what constitutes initiation cer emonies. Social ones have been replaced by a sequence of steps that lead to increased rec ognition and social status. For example, grade school graduation, high school graduation a nd college graduation constitute such a sequence, and while each step implies certain beha vioral changes and social recognition, the significance of each depends on the socio-econo mic status and the educational ambition of the individual. Ceremonies for adolescence hav e also been replaced by legal definitions of status roles, right, privileges and responsibilitie s. It is during the nine years from the twelfth birthday to the twenty-first that the protecti ve and restrictive aspects of childhood and minor status are removed and adult privileges
and responsibilities are granted. The twelve-year-old is no longer considered a child and h as to pay full fare for train, airplane, theater and movie tickets. Basically, the individual a t this age loses childhood privileges without gaining significant adult rights. At the age of sixteen the adolescent is granted certain adult rights which increases his social status by providing him with more freedom and choices. He now can obtain a driver’s license; he can leave public schools; and he can work without the restrictions of child labor laws. At the age of eighteen the law provides adult responsibilities as well as rights; the young m an can now be a soldier, but he also can marry without parental permission. At the age o f twenty-one the individual obtains his full legal rights as an adult. He now can vote, he can buy liquor, he can enter into financial contracts, and he is entitled to run for public office. No additional basic rights are acquired as a function of age after majority status h as been attained. None of these legal provisions determine at what point adulthood has be en reached but they do point to the prolonged period of adolescence.

  41. The period of adolescence is much longer in industrial societies because _.
[A] the definition of maturity has changed
[B] the industrialized society is more developed
[C] more education is provided and laws against child labor are made(C)
[D] ceremonies for adolescence have lost their formal recognition and symbolic signifi cance

  42. Former social ceremonies that used to mark adolescence have given place to .
[A] graduations from schools and colleges
[B] social recognition
[C] socio-economic status(A)
[D] certain behavioral changes

  43. No one can expect to fully enjoy the adulthood privileges until he is .
[A] eleven years old
[B] sixteen years old
[C] twenty-one years old(C)
[D] between twelve and twenty-one years old

  44. Starting from 22, .
[A] one will obtain more basic rights
[B] the older one becomes, the more basic rights he will have
[C] one won’t get more basic rights than when he is 21(C)
[D] one will enjoy more rights granted by society

  45. According to the passage, it is true that .
[A] in the late 19th century in the United States the dividing line between adolescenc e and adulthood no longer existed
[B] no one can marry without the permission of his parents until the age of twenty-o ne
[C] one is considered to have reached adulthood when he has a driver’s license(A)
[D] one is not free from the restrictions of child labor laws until he can join the ar m
Text 2
Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is w hether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for r eal.
The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufactu ring and services together, productivity has grown on average by
  1.2% since 19
  87. That i s somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productiv ity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-1987 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the un derlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a “disjunction” bet ween the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture r eflected by the statistics.
Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace?all tha t re-engineering and downsizing?are only one contribution to the overall productivity of a n economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment
and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality c an matte
 

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