何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
2012 版考研英语长难句突破讲义
主讲人: 主讲人:何凯文 北京外国语大学 适用对象:考研学子,四级,六级英语学习或相当英语者。 课程目的:打破英语阅读学习的幻觉,真正获得一扇通向别样美丽世界的窗户,人生从 此再无长难句。为翻译和英文写作夯实基础。
第一部分
英文句子阅读的实际过程是什么? ?
方法论讲解
中英文转化过程中在句子层面的障碍
? ?
句子可以是这样的:There is something by reason of which man is man. 英语句子的分类: 句和 句 简单句的定义: 简单句的障碍来源 简单句没有障碍的情况:
  1.
  2.
  3.
  4.
  5. Tom ,do you take Jerry for your lawful wife, to have and to hold, from this day forward, for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, until death do part you ? 单句的障碍来源:
  1.
  2.
  3.
  4. 简单句的障碍识别及处理方法 定语: 定语 作用和识别 和识别: 作用和识别: 前置定语
1
何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
?
后置定语: a book useful for the future a woman picking the blackberry a picture painted by Picasso a way to solve this problem an apple on the table a cat alive something important
n. +
处理: 定语从句(不属于简单句范畴) 定语从句的作用: 今生:.I have three books of which the red is my favorite. 前世: 关系代词: 定语从句的连接词: 关系连词:
介词+关系代词: 定语从句的处理方法:
Eg
  1.A poem line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river. Eg
  2. Man is born as a blank sheet of paper on which each culture writes its text. Eg
  3. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed. Eg
  4. The sun rises that looks beautiful. 练习:请将下面的两个句子用定语从句写成一个句子: The ambition must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired. The educated is not least among them. The ambition must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, The ambition must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired,
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何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
?
同位语 作用: 识别: 处理:
Eg
  1. The Court supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuries-old moral principle Eg
  2.Robots will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves?goals that pose a real challenge. A of B 为同位语的条件: 上下义词的作用: 同位语从句: 同位语从句: 结构识别: 名词+that+句子 例子: I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed - we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day, even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today! From I Have a Dream~ Martin Luther King
?
插入语: 插入语: 作用: 作用: 识别: 识别:
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何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
处理: 处理: 万能插入语: Rather than:
状语: 状语: 作用: 作用: 例句: 例句: She is admittedly reliable. It is painfully apparent that she is a liar. China's long-term modernization program understandably and necessarily emphasizes economic growth. 识别: 识别:
?
处理: 处理: 例
  1:Using techniques developed for the offshore oil and gas industry, the DSDP’s drill ship, the Glomar Challenger, was able to maintain a steady position on the ocean’s surface and drill in very deep waters, extracting samples of sediments and rocks from the ocean floor. (From TOEFL authentic test)

  2:A few art collectorsJames Bowden Ⅲ of Boston, William Byrd of Virginian, and the Aliens And Hamilton of Philadelphiaintroduced European art traditions to those colonists privileged to visit their galleries, especially aspiring artists, and established in their respective communities the idea of the value art and the need for institutions devoted to its encouragement. (From TOEFL authentic test) 对一种隔离结构的强调
  1.They maintain with a certain fidelity the principle of this school.
  2. He elected as his primary duty and happiness in his life the thinking activity about the moral problem.
非简单句的障碍来源
4
何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
非简单句的构成: 非简单句的障碍解决方案 ? 关联词和主句专一原则 关联词分类:
  1. 关系代词:,
  2. 关系连词:
  3. 标点符号:

  4. 并列连词: 主句专一原则:
  1. 一个句子只能有一个主句,主句中没有关联词。
  2. 一个句子中有 n 个分句,则只有 n-1 个关联词。 例证: 句子之间的关联方式 ?
  1.并列 并列 ? 并列联词的用法
  1.
  2.
  3.
  4. 例
  1.He drank beer, and it made him fat. 例
  2. It is a little upsetting to read that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer and to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers, "Pluff! Pluff!" A hundred and eighty-five kilograms. 并列连词的用法
  1.连接两个句子(句间的并列)
  2.连接两个句中成分可以是从句也可以是短语等(句中并列) ,从连词后往前寻找并 列成分。
  3.并列连词表示并列的终结
  4.并列常常引起省略(可以是省略并列成分也可以省略连词如 and 等) 例
  1. He drank beer, and it made him fat. 句间的并列 例
  2. It is a little upsetting to read that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer and to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers, "Pluff! Pluff!" A hundred and eighty-five kilograms. (句中并 列) 解析:并列成分为 to read… and to find…
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何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
A and B , C and D. 解析:并列连词表示并列的终结就意味着:A and B 是一个并列成分和 C 以及 D 构成并列; 例
  4. TO see the world in a grain of sand And a heaven in a wild flower Hold infinity in the palm of your hand And eternity in an hour. 一沙一世界 , 一花一天国 君掌盛无边, 刹那含永劫。 例
  5. The love song of the sixth Dalai Lama Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho (1683- 1707 or 1746 ), was the Sixth Dalai Lama of Tibet, he was also a well-acclaimed poet. That day, I closed my eyes in the incense fog of the Buddha’s Hall, suddenly heard the mantra from your voice; That month, I turned all the prayer wheels, not for my salvation, but for the touch of your fingertips; That year, I prostrated myself along the mountain paths, not for my pilgrimage, but for the warmth of being close to you; That life, I turned around mountains and rivers,I turned around all the Pagodas, not for cultivating my afterlife, but to meet with you in the way. 那一天,闭目在经殿香雾中,蓦然听见你颂经中的真言。 那一月,我摇动所有的转经筒,不为超度,只为触摸你的指尖。 那一年,磕长头匍匐在山路,不为觐见,只为贴着你的温暖。 那一世,转山转水转佛塔啊,不为修来生,只为途中与你相见 ?
  2.主从复合(嵌套) 主从复合( 主从复合 嵌套) 主从复合句的分类: 三大从句: 三大从句: 名词性从句: 名词性从句:

  3.
主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句
形容词性从句: 形容词性从句:
定语从句
副词性从句: 副词性从句:
状语从句
常见的关联词: 常见的关联词:
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何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
名词性从句:关系代词:what,who,whom,which, 关系连词:that, when, where, how, 形容词性从句:见定语从句 副词性从句: 状语从句类型 时间状语从句 常用连接词 When, while, as, before, since, till, until, as soon as 特殊连接词
  1. 一些时间名词:the moment, the instant, the minute, the day, next time, every time
  2. 一些副词:instantly, immediately, directly
  3. 固 定 搭 配 的 连 词 : no soonerthan, hardlywhen, scarcelywhen. Wherever, anywhere, everywhere Seeing that, considering that, now that, given that, in that, inasmuch as, insomuch as Lest, for fear that, in case, in the hope that, on purpose that, for the purpose that, to the end that Such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that, to such an extent that Suppose, supposing, providing, provided(特别关注: supposed, provide 不 用 作 条 件 从 句 的 连 词 ) on condition that, so long as, as long as While(一般用在句首), as(用于倒装结构),whatever, whoever, whichever, however, whenever, wherever, whether or, as adj. as +主谓结构用在句首 The more, the more; just as, so; A is to B what/as C is to D; no more--than; not A so much as B/not so much A as B
地点状语从句 原因状语从句 目的状语从句 结果状语从句 条件状语从句
Where Because, as, for, since So that, in order that, that Sothat, so that, suchthat If, unless
让步状语从句
Although, though, even though, even if As, than
比较状语从句
方式状语从句
as, the way
名词性从句的分类讲解: 名词性从句的分类讲解: 主语从句: 主语从句: 结构识别:(
  1).关系连词+句子+动词 (
  2). It+ be 动词+形容词/名词短语+关系连词+句子 ? (
  3). It +不及物动词+that 例子:
  1.That the seas are being over fished has been known for years.
  2.That the plates are moving is not beyond dispute.
  3.What happened on the GuangMingDing will be forever etched in zhangwuji’s memory.
  4.It is generally agreed that a person of high intelligence is one who can grasp ideas
7
何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
readily, make distinctions, reason logically, and make use of verbal and mathematical symbol in solving problems. 人们普遍认为,高智商的人有这样一些特点:理解力强,辨别力强,逻辑推理能 力强,并且在解决问题的过程中善于利用文字或数学符号。 It is clear that … 显然;it is possible that … 很可能… It is likely that …很可能; it is natural that … 很自然… It is certain that …可以相信; it is strange that …奇怪的是… It is fortunate that…幸运的是; it is necessary that …有必要的是…
  5.It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. (Pride and Prejudice) It is a pity that …可惜的是… It is a fact that … It is a good news that ……真是太好了 It is a good thing that … … 真是件好事 It is no wonder that …难怪… It is a shame that… 遗憾的是…/…真是太不像话 了 It is an honor that … 真荣幸… It is common knowledge … 是常识 It is my belief that… 我相信… It is a miracle that … …真是奇迹
  6.It seemed that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that occurred through all the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution. It seems that …似乎, It follows that…因此 It happens that…碰巧, It turns out that…结果, 宾语从句 结构识别: (
  1)动词+关联词+句子 (
  2)动词+宾语 1+关联词+句子 (
  3)介词+关联词+句子 (
  4)动词+it 形式宾语+宾补+关联词+句子 例子:
  1. I have learned that love, not time, heals all wounds.
  2. Xiaoguaishou assured Oatman that he had no intention of offending him.
  3. "The test of any democratic society,” he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column, "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude.” 他在《华尔街日报》的一个专栏写道: “对于任何民主社会的检验不在于它能多有效 的控制言论的自由表达,而在于它能否最大限度的赋予思想自由和表达自由.
  4.we must make it clear that the parties involved are to make every effort to curb the pollution. 我们必须强调清楚,有关方面应该尽一切努力来治理污染。 表语从句
8
何凯文考研系列讲义 之 长难句突破
结构的识别: 系动词+关联词+句子 例子:The reason for my return is
I left my keys behind. (because/that)
层次化句子阅读法:
  1. 层次化结构的表示形式

  1: However, for many years, physicists thought that atoms and molecules always were much more likely to emit light spontaneously and that stimulated emission thus always would be much weaker. 例
  2:It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that occurred through all
 

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