经济类文章 Background Information 美元持续走低,意味着美国经济存在缺陷,但是否就意味着地球上其他国家 也将遭受劫难?答案是否定的。世界经济将从美元的逐步下滑中受益。这将有助 于缓解全球流动资金失衡状况,并且通过将生产转移到美国可贸易领域,缓冲房 地产泡沫破灭给美国经济带来的震荡。诚然,美元的下滑将影响欧洲及亚洲的出 口,但如果这些地区的央行现有的利率走低,进而促进内需这也正是全球经 济达到重新平衡所需要的局面那么这种影响将会被抵消。 现今欧洲及亚洲的 强势增长也将有助于防止美国经济的低迷蔓延至整个世界。 The Falling Dollar THE dollar's tumble this week was attended by predictable shrinks from the markets; but as it fell to a 20-month low of $
  1.32 against the euro, the only real surprise was that it had not slipped sooner. Indeed, there are good reasons to expect its slide to continue, dragging it below the record low of $
  1.36 against the euro that it hit in December 20
  04. The recent decline was triggered by nasty news about the American economy. New figures this week suggested that the housing market's troubles are having a wider impact on the economy. Consumer confidence and durable-goods orders both fell more sharply than expected. In contrast, German business confidence has risen to a 15-year high. There are also mounting concerns that central banks in China and elsewhere, which have been piling up dollars assiduously for years, may start selling. So, contrary to popular perceptions, America's economy has not significantly outperformed Europe's in recent years. Since 2000 its structural budget deficit (after adjusting for the impact of the economic cycle) has widened sharply, while American households' saving rate has plunged, causing the current-account deficit to swell. Over the same period, the euro-area economies saw no fiscal stimulus and household saving barely budged. Yet cyclical factors only partly explain why the dollar has been strong. At bottom, its attractiveness is based more on structural factorsor, more accurately, on an illusion about structural differences between the American and European economies. The main reason for the dollar's strength has been the widespread belief that the American economy vastly outperformed the world's other rich country economies in recent years. But the figures do not support the hypothesis. Sure, America's GDP growth has been faster than Europe's, but that is mostly because its population has grown more quickly too. Official figures of productivity growth, which should in theory be an important factor driving currency movement, exaggerate America's lead. If the two are measured on a comparable basis, productivity growth over the past decade has been almost the same in the euro area as it has in America. Even more important, the latest figures suggest that, whereas
productivity growth is now slowing in America, it is accelerating in the euro zone. America's growth, thus, has been driven by consumer spending. That spending, supported by dwindling saving and increased borrowing, is clearly unsustainable; and the consequent economic and financial imbalances must inevitably unwind. As that happens, the country could face a prolonged period of slower growth. As for Europe, the old continent is hobbled by inflexible product and labor markets. But that, paradoxically, is an advantage: it means the place has a lot of scope for improvement. Some European countries are beginning to contemplate (and, to a limited extent, undertake) economic reforms. If they push ahead, their growth could actually speed up over the coming years. Once investors spot this, they are likely to conclude that the euro is a better bet than the dollar. 核心词汇: 核心词汇 tumble v. ①(使)摔倒;② 打滚,翻腾;n. 摔跤,跌倒 shrink n. v. 萎缩,减少; [同义词]dwindle euro 欧元 slip v. ①滑,滑倒;② 滑落,滑掉;③ 溜走;n. 疏忽,小错,口误,笔误 Step outside and you could break a leg, slipping on your doormat.[1999 年阅读
  1] 如果你走出去,可能会滑倒在门垫上,摔伤一条腿。 trigger n. 扳机,触发器;v. 触发,引发,引起 nasty a. 肮脏的,污秽的,下流的,恶意的 housing market 住房市场 durable-goods 耐用品 in /by contrast 相比之下,on the contrary 相反; mount v. (由名词 mountain 变来) 爬上去,增长,上升 pile up 堆积,囤积 assiduously 勤勉地,勤恳地 cyclical 循环的,周期性的;recycle 循环,再利用;recyclable 可回收的 illusion 幻觉,错觉;illusory 幻觉的,虚幻的;allusion 典故 outperform v. 表现好于,超额完成;胜过 over the past decade 在过去的十年里 whereas=while 而,尽管 accelerate 加速,加快 contrary to 与…相反 perception 观念,理念;art perception 艺术理念; deficit 赤字 plunge 垂直下降 fiscal=financial 财政的 budge v. 编预算 dwindle 缩小,萎缩 unsustainable 不能维持下去
consequent 随后的,后来的 imbalances 不平衡 inevitably 不可避免地 prolonged 延长的,长期的 inflexible 不灵活的 paradoxically 自相矛盾的是,似是而非的是 contemplate 考虑,沉思 to a limited extent 在一定的程度上 spot n. 地点,v. 发现 参考译文: 下跌的美元 本周,由于可预见的市场萎缩,美元继续保持下降的趋势。随着美元兑欧元 下降到二十个月来的最低点(
  1.32 美元兑 1 欧元),唯一可以算得上令人惊讶 的事情是这种局面不会更快地下滑。的确,有充分的理由相信美元的下降趋势将 继续下去,甚至打破 2004 年 12 月创造的
  1.36 美元:1 欧元的历史最低点。 近期关于美国经济的大量负面新闻触发了美元的持续贬值。 这一周来的新数 据显示,美国房市的问题对经济带来了更广泛的影响。消费者信心和耐用品订单 量都比预期的下滑还要更严重。相比之下,德国商业信心创下了 15 年来的历史 新高,同样也出现了越来越多的担忧,那就是中国或其它地方的央行几年来一直 努力囤积美元,而现在却开始抛售美元。 因此,和流行的观念恰恰相反,美国经济近几年的经济整体表现并不明显强 于欧洲的同期表现。自 2000 年以来,美国的结构性财政赤字显著提高(对经济 周期对财政状况的影响进行修正后)。同时,随着美国家庭储蓄率持续下降,使 得美国的流动资金赤字迅速增长。而在同一时期,欧元区的各经济体的财政状况 良好,而家庭储蓄也基本保持不变。 但是,周期性因素只能片面地解释美元为什么一直强势。美元对投资者的吸 引力根本上更多地基于经济结构要素或者更准确地说,基于投资者对于美国 和欧洲的经济结构差别所产生的一种错觉。 美元过去强势的主要原因是普遍存在的这种观点:近几年,相对世界其它富 裕国家,美国经济的整体表现十分出众。但数据并不支持这一假设。的确,美国 的国民生产总值增长速度要高于欧洲国家, 但是这主要归功于美国快速增长的人 口总量。 生产力增长的官方数据, 虽然在理论上是影响货币汇率走向的重要因素, 但实际上却夸大了美国的领先地位。如果将欧美放在同一指标上进行比较,那么 在过去十年里, 欧美的经济表现基本上是一样的。 更重要的是, 最新的数据显示, 当前美国的生产力增长正在放缓,而欧元区的生产力增长则在加速。 因此,美国的经济增长一直靠消费增长所拉动。而消费增长则是建立在储蓄 下降和负债增多的基础上,很明显,这种形式的经济增长是无法持久的,而因此 造成的经济以及财政的不平衡的后果也将不可避免的出现。 随着这种消费主因的 经济增长的消退,国家将可能面临长时间的经济增长放缓。 就欧洲而言,这块年迈的大陆被缺乏弹性的产品和劳工市场拖得步履艰难。 但是,虽然听起来有些荒谬,这种状况相对来说可能是一种优势:它意味着欧洲 人有很大的空间去改善他们的经济状况。一些欧洲国家开始慎重考虑(并在小范
围内试行)他们的经济改革。如果这些改革成功,他们的经济增长将在未来显著 加快。一旦投资者发现这点,他们很可能认为欧元相比美元将是更加有利的选择
Background Information 家庭和社区介入治疗可以帮助每个家庭成员认识和解决家庭中的问题, 促进 相互理解、相互帮助,避免患者在治疗后又回到一个病态家庭中去;也可以帮助 患者摆脱依赖,同时也消除患者给家庭成员造成的心理创伤。 When the cure is not worth the cost Thanks to research by the National Institutes of Health and academic scientists during the last three decades, we now have proven treatments for depression, addiction and other mental disorders. But all too often clinicians do not use them. Without financial incentives to provide treatments that are known to work, many mental health professionals stick with what they know, or pick up on the latest fad, or even introduce their own untested innovations--which in turn are spread by testimonials and credulous news media coverage. Similarly, one of the most common approaches to alcoholism treatment involves having counselors and fellow alcoholics confront patients and force them to identify themselves as alcoholics. But research finds that the more a counselor confronts, the more a patient drinks and the more likely he is to drop out of treatment. And no association between accepting the label "alcoholic" and quitting drinking has been found. Counselor empathynot confrontation-is connected with recovery. According to a review by the Institute of Medicine in 2006, only
  10.5 percent of alcoholics received "care consistent with scientific knowledge" of the disorder; similarly, 43 percent of children in psychiatric hospitals are given antipsychotic medication despite not suffering from psychosis. Tough boot camps for troubled teenagers--which have been proven to be ineffective and potentially harmful--thrive, while "multi-systemic family therapy," which effectively treats teenagers at home, is available only through the juvenile justice system. Take the well-known approach featured on the cable TV reality show "Intervention" aimed at getting addicts and alcoholics into treatment. Here, the family and sometimes the employer gather with a counselor, confront the addict and threaten to shun him or fire him if he doesn't enter a rehabilitation center. A 1999 study compared this style of intervention which can backfire and lead to broken familiesto a less confrontational approach known as "community reinforcement and family training," which is aimed at helping the family nurture the addict's own motivation. More than twice as many families succeeded in getting their loved ones
into treatment ( 64 percent) with the gentler approach than with standard intervention (30 percent). But no reality shows push the less dramatic method, and it is difficult to find clinicians who use it. If we want to provide genuine help for the 33 million Americans with mental health and drug problems, giving more no-strings-attached money to providers via insurance mandates is not the answer. It is dangerous to blindly bolster useless and even harmful treatments while failing to support proven therapies. Coverage must be tied to outcomes and evidence. And payment should be dependent, at least in part, on health improvements, not just services received. We need parity in evidence-based treatment, not just in coverage. 核心词汇 thanks to 由于,因为(后常接短语) depression 沮丧,萧条,忧郁症 addiction 上瘾,成瘾;be addicted to 对…上瘾 mental disorders 精神失常,精神紊乱 clinician 临床医生;clinic 诊所 incentives 鼓励,,动力,优惠措施 professionals 职业工作者,amateur 业余工作者 pick up 捡起来,接人,学会 fad 时尚,潮流 in turn 反过来 testimonial 证明书,奖状 credulous 容易相信别人的,易信的 news media coverage 新闻媒体报导 approach n. 方法,方式;v. 靠近,走近,接近 intervention 干预 aimed at 目的在于 addicts 上瘾的人 alcoholics 酗酒者 shun 躲开,躲避,避开 rehabilitation 康复,修复 nurture 培育,培养,教育 identify…as…. 把….看作是 …. drop out of 退出 empathy consistent with 与…一致 psychiatric 精神病的 psychosis 精神病 mandate 指令,要求,命令 bolster n. 垫子 v. 支持 be tied to 与…相联系 be dependent on 依靠,取决于
at least 至少,in part 部分地 not just 不仅仅 核心词汇: 核心词汇 depression n. ①沮丧,消沉;②(经济)萧条,不景气 Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression ( ① ) controlled, cataracts removed in a 30-minute surgical procedure.[2003 年阅读
  4] 髋骨不行了可以更换,临床忧郁症得到了控制,白内障仅用 30 分钟手术便可 以切除。 Even so, that gain adds
 

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