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ellow寄语 20121 Mr. Y ellow 年全国考研学子:
全面、扎实的句法知识在阅读理解和翻译的过程中起到至关重要的作用,在面对复 杂 句式的理解时,句子结构的分析必不可少。常规句子一般要求考生能迅速地抓住句子的 主 谓宾部分,弄清楚从句的始末,从而正确理解句义。而对于一些特殊的句子结构,则理 解 起来难度更大,因此要求考生要不断熟悉才能正确识别而获取高分。
第一章 长难句翻译高分规划课
添加并列成分

  5. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
  6. The medical profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life.
  7. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo’s life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.
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二.短语或词组的并列(固定短语,成对的词组等)
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  1. Practicality, common sense, and native intelligence have been considered more noble qualities than anything you could learn from a book.
  2. We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for 10 or 15 years and come out at last with a bellyful(满肚子的)of words and do not know a thing.
  3. Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty(肮脏的).
  4. This phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy.?
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一.词的并列(名词、动词、形容词、介词等)
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充当英语句子主干成分的名词(词组) 、动词(词组) 、形容词(词组) 、介词(词组 ), 以至各种从句,它们以并列的方式叠加起来,扩展句子的主干成分,形成较长的主语、 谓 语、宾语或表语,语句信息在不断充实的同时,理解的难度也随之加大。
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第一节 英语句子的扩展
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三.句子并列

  8. Intelligence seeks to grasp, manipulate, reorder, and adjust, while intellect examines, ponders, wonders, theorizes, criticizes and imagines.
  9. The inspectorate ( 检 查 团 ) still found that industrial safety officers did not carry out systematic inspections, that workers did not understand the effects that radiation might have on them, and that managers were uncertain about who was responsible for inspecting some pipelines(管道)and drains(排水沟).
  10. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way. 参考译文
  1. 实用性、常识以及与生俱有的智力这些素质一直被看作是比可以从书本里学到的任何 东西都要高贵的品质。
  2. 我们在中小学和大学的教室里关了 10 年或 15 年,最后出来满肚子墨水,却啥也不懂。
  3. 自从人类萌发了创造力,他们就开始设计越来越精巧的工具来处理危险、乏味、累人 或很肮脏的工作。
  4. 这一现象使得人们对小型经济实体和民族企业家的作用以及世界经济的最终稳定产生 了严重的忧虑。
  5. 许多美国人随意表现出来的友好态度不应看作是在表面应付或故作姿态,而应当视为 历史发展形成的一种文化传统。
  6. 医疗界正采取措施要求年轻医生在临终关怀区去接受培训,检验他们对剧痛治疗方法 的知识,健全以医院治疗为基础的医疗保险法规,制定新标准来评估及测定和处理病 人的临终痛苦。
  7. 因为现行联邦政府法律已经禁止使用联邦基金来培育供研究用的胚胎(即人类后代出 生前的最早阶段)或禁止有意识地去危害胚胎的生命,所以 NBAC 的建议将不会涉及 对胚胎的研究。
  8. 智力寻求的是理解、运用、整合和调节,而才学是审视、思考、探究、推理、批判和 想象。
  9. 检查团仍然发现:负责企业安全的官员没有进行系统性的检查,工人们不了解辐射可 能对他们所产生的影响,以及经理们对谁负责检查管道和排水沟都不清楚。
  10. 另一相当类似的分化过程导致全国专业地质学家聚集起来,形成一两个全国性的团 体,而业余地质学家则要么留在地方性团体中,要么以不同方式组成全国性的团体。 03 翻译真题演练:
  11. Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena. 。
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第二节 英语句子的扩展
添加修饰补充成分 英语句子中的修饰语种类多,数量大,是构成英语长、难句的主要因素。若把英语句 子中的 SV,SVO 看成是长句的主干,英语修饰语则可视为是主干上的分支,分支越多, 句子就扩展得越长,理解起来难度就越大。从句子构成的不同层次来看,英语修饰语属从 属成分,其类型主要有定语,同位语和状语。
his friends’ attempts to dissuade him from going any further the failure to observe safety procedures(程序) efforts to identify and test methods of preventing transmission from mother to child the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem those suffering from persistent nightmares(经常性的噩梦) a system involving storage of large amounts of data problems arising from mass migration movements(大规模人口流动所引起的) the number of people opposed to fox hunting(反对猎杀狐狸的)
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an asteroid (小行星)big enough to destroy lots of life devices innumerable (无数的)devices practical for general use produce a battery both powerful and cheap enough to do the job
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熟悉并牢记下面 5 种后置定语,磨砺后置语感 enrollment in business programs, engineering and computer science is way up a space telescope with a mirror over six and a half feet in diameter(直径) an article on exercise’s effect on the brain(运动对大脑影响的)
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汉语:前置性思维习惯 修饰语 中心语
英语:后置性思维习惯 中心语 修饰语
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定语中后置定语(前置定语较易把握)对长句的理解构成干扰的多,它从属于中心成 分, 与被修饰的中心成分构成一个整体。 后置定语主要有分词短语 (现在分词, 过去分词 ) , 不定式短语, 介词短语、 形容词短语等几种类型。它们反映了一种不同于汉语的思维习惯 , 是英语的特色之一。
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. 一. 定语
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  1. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest children commit crimes as a rejection of middle-class values.
  2. For those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, this refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet.
  3. A suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginning with letters between A and K.
  4. All objects falling to earth from the same height hit the ground with the same speed.
  5. Daniel M. Landers, professor of exercise science at Arizona State University, recently published an article reviewing the scientific literature on activity’s effect on the brain.
  6. Our ability to benefit from this high-tech communications equipment is greatly enhanced by foreign language skills.
  7. The people everywhere in the world are looking for the methods to make the air clean.
  8. The first astronaut to walk in space, Leonov, and his companion Beliaiev, began making preparation for the walk as soon as their spaceship was launched.
  9. Someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more cognitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind. 注意:许多词组(如形容词词组,分词词组等)做后置定语时,通常可以扩充成从句,构 成定语从句。 翻译真题演练:03 年 48 题 (
  48) The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science. 。 二.同位语
同位语通常表现为后置修饰语,主要是对某些语句成分进行补充说明,或归纳定性, 或具体描述。熟悉以下各类型同位语:
  10. Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across(偶然碰到) Career Builder, a job database on the internet.
  11. “The indoor environment was dirty long before energy conservation(保护,节约) came along.” says Moschandreas a pollution scientist at Geomet Technologies in Maryland. Moschandreas,
  12. Among the firms making the biggest splash(取得最大成功) in this new world is Stratford, Inc., a private intelligence analysis firm based in Austin, Texas.
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  13. Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bon Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much “re-engineering” has been crude.
  14. Some women are normally inactive but then all of a sudden (突然) start a program of intense training, an action which violates the laws of sports science.
  15. Today this knowledge enables us to send probes(探测器) into the farthest reaches of the solar system and to put them on the surface of the moon ?--things that Newton could only have dreamed of.
  16. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that sulfur 硫磺) may cause ( a slight increase in the acidity(酸性) of rain, an effect which will be felt more in rural areas than in urban areas already polluted.
  17. If one’s heart doesn’t work well, it can be replaced, something which wouldn’t have been impossible without the development of medical technology. 注意:除了各类型短语充当同位语外,从句也可充当同位语,构成同位语从句。 三.状语
状语在句子中修饰动词,说明动作(或状态)发生(或存在)的时间、地点、方式、 方法、原因、目的、条件、结果等方面的情况。状语可由副词,形容词(短语) ,分词短 语,不定式短语等充当。
  18. Stratford makes money by selling the results of spying to corporations like energy-services firm McDermott International.
  19. Weekly we read of unions who went on strike for higher wages, only to drive their employer out of business.
  20. Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.
  21. The company’s international branch lost 40% of its market share, even while offering competitive rates.
  22. Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before wakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day.
  23. Go into the negotiations, prepared to place your chips( 谈 判 筹 码 ) on the table at the appropriate time and prepared to use communication style to guide the direction of the interaction.
  24. In spite of /Despite vitamin C's great popularity, consuming large amounts of it still has not been positively linked to any great benefit. The body quickly becomes saturated with C and simply excretes (排泄) any excess.
  25. Consumers say they are not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good.
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  26. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics, there are already robot systems that
 

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