1 考研英语语法讲义 语法,无论是对于英语学习者还是教授者而言,都是最难掌握的问题,而掌握扎实的语法无 疑是学好英语的关键,尽管在研究生英语考试中并不直接涉及语法,但阅读理解,写作和翻 译等试题无不体现出它的重要性。 然而, 市场上种类繁多的语法书籍, 大都是内容多而不精, 即次重点不分,并且对于在学习过程中,大家共同反映的较有难度的语法,如非谓语动词、 虚拟语气、定语从句都未能作出精辟分析,使读者看后仍不知所云。本着这个目的,我们再 次相聚考研讲堂, 希望通过两天的深入学习使广大考生对语法有个彻底的了解, 在今后考试 中遇到相应问题能游刃有余。 一、语法知识回顾 (一)基础语法知识
  1. 英语句子的基本句型(Basic Sentence Pattern) (
  1)主+系+表(SVP) (
  2)主+谓(不及物动词)(SV) (
  3)主+谓(及物动词)+宾(SVO) (
  4)主+谓(及物动词)+间接宾语(指人)+直接宾语(指物)(SVOO) (
  5)主+谓(及物动词)+宾+补足语(SVOC)
  2. 按照用途句子的分类 (
  1)陈述句(Declarative Sentence) (
  2)疑问句(Interrogative Sentence) ①一般疑问句(General Question) ②特殊疑问句(Special Question) ③选择疑问句(Alternative Question) ④反意疑问句 (Tag Question)(详见“考研英语语法重难点精解”中的反意疑问句) (
  3)祈使句(Imperative Sentence) (
  4)感叹句(Exclamatory Sentence)
  3. 按照结构句子分类(Division by Structure) (
  1)简单句(Simple Sentence) 只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成的句子称为简单句: (
  2)并列句(Compound Sentence) 用并列连词(或分号、冒号、逗号)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成的句子叫并列 句 (
  3)复合句(Complex Sentence) 由关联词把一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句联系在一起所构成的句子称为复合句, 也称为 主从复合句,复合句根据关联词在句中的作用可分为如下类型: ①名词性从句(Noun Clause) (主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句) ②状语从句(Adverbial Clause) (详见“考研英语语法重难点精解”中状语从句) (二)重点语法回顾
  1、主谓一致(Subject-verb Agreement) 一致是指句子成份间或词语间必须在人称、数、性等方面保持一致关系,一致这一语言现象 在日常应用及各类英语考试中出现较多,最主要的一致关系是主谓一致。 (
  1)主谓一致的分类: ① 语法一致,即主语为单数形式,谓语动词也采取单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词
也用复数形式。 ② 意义一致,即从意义上着眼来处理主谓一致问题,也就是说有时主语形式为单数,但意 义为复数,这时谓语动词视其意义采用复数形式,反之亦然。 ③ 就近一致,即谓语动词的人称和数往往和最靠近的词语保持一致。 (
  2)主谓一致原则的具体应用: ①数词与表示时间、金钱、度量衡、温度等名词作主语,表示一定量或总量时,谓语动词用 单数形式: ②集体名词,如:army, board, family, committee, couple, crowd, crew, jury, staff, team, public, government 做主语,指整体时谓语动词用单数,指集体各成员时,谓语动词用复数: 、、、(详见“考研英语语法重难点精解”中的主谓一致) 、、、
  2、强调句(Emphatic Sentence) 强调句是就句中某一成分着重说明 (
  1)在谓语动词前加助动词 do, did, does 强调该谓语动词,构成强调句: (
  2)强调句中谓语以外的其它成分时用强调句型(详见“考研英语语法重难点精解”中的 强调句 )
  3、倒装句(Inverted Sentence) (
  1)全部倒装 ①there be 句型,有时一些表示存在意义的不及物动词也可用于该句型 ②here, there, now, then, thus, hence 置于句首而主语不是人称代词时: ③表示方向、地点的状语置于句首,如:up, down, away, here, in, out, off (
  2)部分倒装 ①否定词或具有(半)否定意义的词或词组置于句首作状语时,如: never, scarcely, hardly, rarely, seldom 等; ②only + 副词/介词短语/状语从句,即句首状语由 only 修饰时; 、、、(详见“考研英语语法重难点精解”中的倒装句) 、、、
  4、※定语从句(Attributive Clause) 在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句称为定语从句, 被定语从句所修饰的词称为先行词, 定语 从句必须置于先行词之后,定语从句是研究生及四、六级等各类考试中常考点,也是语法中 的重点: 关系代词:which, that, who(m), whose, as (
  1)引导词 关系副词:when, where, why (
  2)关系代词引出的定语从句和关系副词引出的定语从句的区别(略) (详见“考研英语语法重难点精解”中的定语从句)
  5、※虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood) 虚拟语气是谓语动词的一种形式,用来表示非真实的假设,或用来表示命令、建议以及说话 人的主观愿望,有时也可以使语气缓和、委婉的作用,虚拟语气作为一重点语法,在各类考 试中占有相当大的分值,所以理会该语法,不仅对于考试,还是日常应用中都有相当大的作 用: (
  1)虚拟语气常用于条件句中,表示与现在、将来、过去事实相反的假设,下图表显 示的是与现在、将来、过去 相反假设时,虚拟语气主句与条件从句谓语动词的变化形式, 现以动词 do 为例。 主句 条件从句 现在
would/should/could/might + do be → were/do → did 将来 would/should /could/might + do were to+do/should +do(只能用 should) 过去 would/should/could/might + have done had done (
  2)混合式虚拟语气 有时条件从句和主句时态不一致, 可以根据主、 从句动作发生的时间分别运用相应的虚拟语 气; 、、、 (详见“考研英语语法重难点精解”中的虚拟语气) 、、、
  6、※非谓语动词 (Non-finite Verb) 非谓语动词是动词的一种形式,就其定义而言,它在句中不能单独作谓语,非谓语动词包括 动名词、分词和不定式,非谓语动词是语法学习中的重点也是难点。 (详见“考研英语语法 重难点精解”中的非谓语动词) (
  1)分词(Participle) ①分词的时态(Tense)(以动词 do 为例) 语态 时态 主动 被动 一般式 doing being done 现在分词 完成式 having done having been done 过去分词 done ②分词的用法 (Usage) (
  2)动名词(Gerund) 动名词是一种非谓语动词,它的形式与现在分词相同,具有名词和动词的某些特征,它可以 带宾语、状语等构成动名词短语,在句中不能单独作谓语。 ① 动名词时态(Tense)(以动词 do 为例) 主动 被动 一般式 doing being done 完成式 having done having been done
②动名词用法(Usage) (
  3)不定式(Infinitive) 动词不定式是一种非谓语动词,在句中不能单独作谓语。 ①不定式时态(Tense)以动词 do 为例 主动 被动 一般式 to do to be done 完成式 to have done to have been done 进行式 to be doing ②不定式用法 (
  4)非谓语动词之间的区别(Differences among the Non?Finite Verbs) ①分词和动名词 ②动名词和不定式 ③不定式和分词
  7、比较级结构(Comparative Structure) (
  1)同级比较 形式为:…as+(形容词或副词)原级+(名词)+ as… (
  2)优劣比较 ①优等比较 形式为:…比较级+than… Tom ran faster than I (did) in the mile race. ②劣等比较 形式为:…not so (as) +原级+ as…=less+原级+ than She is not so beautiful as her sister. =She is less beautiful than her sister. 二、试题精练: ( 一 )非谓语动词、独立主格结构
  1. The security of the babies is supposed to by the nurses. A) see to B) be seen to C) be seening to D) be seen
  2. He claimed at yesterday’s party. A) to treat badly B) to have treated badly C) to be badly treated D) to have been badly treated
  3. “Did you find out who had stolen my watch?” “That child didn’t admit” A) to have done that B) had done that C) doing that D) having done that
  4. Do you remember to Professor Smith during your last visit ? A) to be introduced B) being introduced C) having introduced D) to have introduced
  5. One of the properties of light is travelling in wave form as it gose from one plaec to another.
A) it B) it’s C) its D) their
  6. The vacuum tube , invented near the beginning of our century, gave us the use of radio waves, an energy source never before , and later opened the road for television, A) was captured B) captured C) capturing D) had been captured
  7. The headmaster’s order to have the whole place at once was unreasonable since he did not provide any tools. A) cleaning up B) to clean up C) cleaned up D) clean up
  8. neglecting our education, my father sent my brother and me to a summer school. A) Accused of B) Accusing of C) That he was accused of D) To be accused of
  9. Susan stood motionless at the end of the diving board, hands at her sides, heels slinghtly raised, every muscleaction. A) anticipating B) anticipated C) to anticipate D) having anticipated
  10. Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office, but our work, we declined the offer. A) not being finished B) not having finished C) had not been finished D) was not finished
  11. He lay on a straw mat with his . A) closed eyes and his mouth open B) eyes closed and his open mouth C) closed eyes and open his mouth D) eyes closed and his mouth open
  12. in the cupboard she went out to get something to eat. A) With something left B) With nothing leaving C) Without anything left D) Without something left
  13. by an American university, I finally flew to San Francisco on August 6, 1988 A) Being invited B) Having invited C) Having been invited D) Had been invited
  14. “Why isn’t Robert here?” “It is my secretary’s fault . He forgot all abouthim.” A) telephoning B) to telephone C) to telephone to D) telephoning to
  15. The way he talks is simply intolerable. I object to like a child. A) treat B) be treated C) treating D) being treated
  16. , we have to adopt new measures to solve the problem. A) So is the situation B) That being the case C) That is the case D) The situation is so
  17. The young doctor could not sleep at night, his thoughts him no peace. A) gave B) giving C) being given D) to give
  18. The room is so dirty that it wants . A) cleaning B) being cleaned C) to clean D ) cleaned
  19. Before the Spring Festival, the leaders of the village made house-to-house survey,in each family about their needs and problems.
A) to inquire B) to be inquiring C) inquiring D) inquired
  20. A large fish was slowly swimming through the water, its tail back and forth like the pendulum of a clock . A) swung B) was swung C) swinging D) was swinging (二) 倒装、强调、省略
  1. Not noly diffcult to light , but it smelled of oil . A) it was B) it made C) did it make D) was it
  2. you have been looking forward to . A) The letter is that B) The letter is here C) Here the letter is D) Here is the letter
  3. In the scientific station designed to record moonquakes and meteorite impacts . A) instruments were B) were instruments C) stands instruments D) instruments stand
  4. Most people would agree that only in exceptional circumstances the turth from the patient . A) should a doctor hide B) a doctor should hide C) a doctor would hide D) a doctor will hide
  5. As is the teacher , . A) so is the pupil B) so does the pupil C) the pupil does so D) the poupil is so
  6. Just as the soil is a part of the earth , the atomosphere . A) as it is B) the same is C) so is D) and so is
  7. Humble it may be , there is no place like home . A) although B) as C) how D) that
  8. Wood does not conduct electricity , . A) so do rubber B) so does rubber C) nor does rubber D) nor rubber does
  9. you want me to do ? A) Who is it that B) What is it that C) Wherever is it that D) Whenever is it that
  10. Up went the price and . A) the living standard came down B) came down the living standard C) down the living standard came D) down came the living standard
  11. Not until I shouted at the top of my voice his head . A) that he turned B) did he turn C) he didn’t D) he had turned
  12. Adam Smith’s “ The Wealth of Nations ” that Jim Green was fascinated by economic theory . A) After reading B) It was reading
C) It was after reading D) Having reading
  13. the first to use nuclear weapons . A) At no time China will be B) Never China will be C) At no time will China be D) Will China never be
  14. No sooner had the bell rung . A) when the class began B) than the class began C) while the class began D) then the class began
  15. Only when you have occupied suffcient materials come to a sound conclusion . A) can you B) you can C) you will D) you are to
  16. Little that he would fulfill his t
 

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