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考研基础班网络课堂写作讲义
第一节考研写作总论
一、课程安排:
  1、考研写作总论:评卷实例、复习计划、学习方法、大纲解读
  2、应用文:书信类、告示类
  3、段落写作:真题透视、框架结构、启承转合
  4、两图写作(
  00、
  03、
  06、
  07)
  5、一图写作(
  98、
  01、
  02、
  04、
  05)
  6、图表作文 二、评卷实例:2001 年真题 Directions: Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest, but everyone had his/her own understanding of it. There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper to
  1) show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the picture below,
  2) give a specific example, and
  3) give your suggestion as to the best way to show love.

  1、20 分范文: Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest. It is of the utmost importance to the human beings. Everybody not only needs love, but also should give love. As is described in the picture, “love is a lamp which is brighter in darker places.” This is indeed true. People in darker places need more light than ordinary people. Maybe even a dim light can give them much hope for a better life and progress. Maybe even a dim light can give them much hope for a better life and progress. Maybe just a thread of light will call forth their strength and courage to step out of their difficulties. For instance when someone is starving to death, just a little food and water from you may save his life. Or when a little girl in a poor rural area drops out of school because of poverty, just a small sum of money from you may support her to finish her schooling and change her life, you have given love which is like a lamp in a dark place where light is most needed. So to sum up, we should offer our help to all who are in need. We expect to get love from others and we also give love to others so when you see someone in difficulty or in distress and in
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need of help, don't hesitate to give your love to him. I believe then the relationship between people will be harmonious and our society will be a better place for us to live in.
  2、18 分范文 It is generally believed that love is a hot topic which is most talked about. This is true not only in China but also in other countries. We live in different countries, speak different languages, but love is something common to us all. But how to show love may be different with different people in different countries. This is something we should give more thought to. As is shown in the picture, love is like a lamp which shines brightest in dark places. This tells us a simple truth: Love is like a lamp. It is most valuable when it is most needed. For example, once I saw a foreign lady get lost in the street. She could not speak Chinese and nobody seemed to be able to help her. Though my English is not very good and I am a shy person, I thought she needed help very much. I asked her what she wanted. She told me she lost her way, so I showed her the way to her hotel. It was a small thing but she thanked me very much because my help was needed very much. My help was like a lamp in dark places. I think we all should be like a lamp in a dark place, showing our love, giving our help to others, even to strangers. In this way, we can make this world a harmonious and peaceful world. 三、复习计划:
  1、考前复习:
  1)攻克词汇:
  2)精研真题:词汇、句子结构、选项设置、英译汉、背诵
  3)适当模考:
  2、写作练习:
  3、时间分配:
  1)
  14:00 -
  14:15 写作 A 节
  2)
  14:15 -
  14:50 写作 B 节
  3)
  14:50 -
  16:00 阅读 A 节
  4)
  16:00 -
  16:20 完型填空
  5)
  16:20 -
  16:40 阅读 B 节
  6)
  16:40 -
  17:00 阅读 C 节
第二节应用文
一、学习方法: (一)提高实力:
  1、十遍精读:
  1)精彩词汇
  2)精彩词组
  3)精彩句型
  4)句子结构:简单句(主干+修饰成分)、从句、时态、冠词、主谓一致
  5)段落结构:总分总,主题句+论证(+小结)
  6)关联词:小作文 3 - 5 个,大作文 5 - 7 个
  7)同义替换:词汇+句型
  8)代词替换:it, that, they
  9)精彩观点:
  10)原因建议:
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  2、背诵:滚瓜烂熟、脱口而出、多多益善
  3、默写:发现写作弱点
  4、中译英:提高写作实力
  5、写作:模仿 (二)掌握技巧:万能框架 二、大纲解读: (一)评价目标: 考生应能写不同类型的应用文,包括私人和公务信函、备忘录、摘要、报告等,还应能 写一般描述性、叙述性和说明或议论性的文章。短文写作时,考生应能:
  1)做到语法、拼写、标点正确,用词恰当;
  2)遵循文章的特定文体格式;
  3)合理组织文章结构,使其内容统一、连贯;
  4)根据写作目的和特定读者,恰当使用语域。 (二)考试内容: 该部分由 A、B 两节组成,考查考生的书面表达能力。总分 30 分。 A 节:考生根据所给情景写出一篇约 100 词(标点符号不计算在内)的应用性短文,包括 私人和公务信函、备忘录、摘要、报告等。考生在答题卡 2 上作答。满分 10 分。 B 节:要求考生根据提示信息写出一篇 160 - 200 词的短文(标点符号不计算在内)。提示 信息的形式有主题句、写作提纲、规定情景、图、表等。考生在答题卡 2 上作答。满分 20 分。 (三)评分原则和方法:
  1、虽然 A、B 两节的考查要点有所不同,但对考生写作能力的基本要求是相同的,所 以一般评分标准对两节都适用。但根据两节的不同考查要点,评分是会有不同的侧重点。 A节 应用文的评分侧重点在于信息点的覆盖和内容的组织、语言的准确性、格式和语域(指 在书面和口语表达中根据不同的交际对象,所采用的话语方式,即正式、一般、非正式的话 语)的恰当。对语法结构和词汇多样性的要求将根据具体试题作调整。允许在作文中使用提 示语中出现过的关键词,但使用提示语中出现过的词组或句子将被扣分。 B节 B 节作文的评分重点在于内容的完整性、文章的连贯组织性、语法结构和词汇的多样性 及语言的准确性。
  2、评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言确定其所属档次,然后以该档次的要求来给分。 评分人员在档内有 1 - 3 分的调节分。
  3、A 节作文的字数要求是 100 词左右。B 节作文的字数要求是 160 - 200 词。文章长度 不符合要求的,酌情扣分。
  4、拼写与标点符号是语言准确性的一个方面。评分时,视其对交际的影响程度予以考 虑。英、美拼写及词汇用法均可接受。
  5、如书写较差,以致影响交际,将分数降低一个档次。 三、书信格式: (一)称呼
  1、写给机构
  1)不认识负责人:Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Sir/Madam, To whom it may concern,
  2)认识负责人:Dear Mr./Ms. President/Professor/Manager/Editor, Dear President (Michael) Wang,
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  2、写给个人
  1)关系不亲密:Dear Mr./Ms. President/Professor/Manager/Editor, Dear President (Michael) Wang,
  2)关系亲密:Dear Michael, (二)正文:3 段、7 句、100-120 词、3-5 关联词、3-5 从句
  1、第一段:2 句
  1)自我介绍 (
  1) I am a staff member from your company/corporation. (
  2) I am a freshman/sophomore/junior/senior/undergraduate/graduate from the Department of Chinese Language and Literature of Beijing University.
  2)写作目的:I am writing the letter in purpose of ordering some books/resigning from my current post/position.
  2、第二段:3 句
  1)改写提纲一:1 句
  2)改写提纲二:1 句
  3)改写提纲三:1 句
  3、第三段
  1)表示感谢(私人建议信除外) (
  1) My appreciation to you for your generous help is beyond words. (
  2) Words fail me when I want to express my sincere gratitude to you. (
  3) I take this opportunity to show my heartfelt appreciation for the kind assistance you rendered me.
  2)期待回信 (
  1) I am looking forward to your reply/hearing from you soon. (
  2) I look forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience. (
  3) Your prompt attention to my inquiry would be highly appreciated. (三)落款 Yours sincerely, Li Ming 四、书信类应用文:
  1、大纲样题:订购信 Directions: You are preparing for an English test and are in need of some reference books. Write a letter to the sales department of a bookstore to ask for:
  1) detailed information about the books you want,
  2) methods of payment,
  3) time and way of delivery. Dear Sir or Madam, As I am planning to take the National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM), I have decided to place an order of some NETEM books with due consideration of the good reputation of your bookstore and the high quality of your books. Firstly, please give me particular accounts as regards names, authors, publishing houses and prices of these books. Secondly, I also need to know the terms of payment and after-sell service. Thirdly, I wonder if it is convenient for you to deliver these books by EMS to the headquarters of
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Beijing New Oriental School by September 1, 20
  07. I have arranged to pay for the service. I would like to express my gratitude for your kind consideration of my requests. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours sincerely, Li Ming
第三节段落写作
一、书信类应用文
  2、2005 真题:辞职信+道歉信 Directions: Two months ago, you got a job as an editor for the magazine Fashion & Design. But now you find that the work is not what you expected. You decide to quit. Write a letter to your boss Mr. Wang, telling him your decision, stating your reason (s), and making an apology. Dear Mr. Wang, I am writing to inform you about my decision to resign from my current position. The primary reasons are as follows. First, after two months, I do feel that it is not easy for me to get used to the extra work and night shift. Second, the salary has proven to be much lower than you originally promised, and I have a large family to support. Last, what I have learned in the university cannot meet the requirement of being an editor. I feel terribly sorry for the inconvenience I have caused. I sincerely hope that you approve of my resignation. Yours sincerely, Li Ming
  3、2006 真题:请求信 Directions: You want to contribute to Project Hope by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area, write a letter to the department concerned, asking them to help find a candidate. You should specify what kind of child you want to help and how you will carry out your plan. Write your letter in no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET
  2. Don't sign your own name at the end of the letter, use "Li Ming" instead. Don't write the address. (10 points) To whom it may concern, As a student who can support myself, I am writing to request if you can help me find a potential beneficiary of Project Hope. I wonder whether it is convenient for you if two things regarding the child are taken into account. First, the child should come from Sichuan Province because I intend to help a child from my hometown. Second, it will be better if he or she is a primary school student who was forced to drop school because of abject poverty. I would like to help the recipient of my assistance annually until he graduates from college. Firstly, the money will cover his tuition fee and other expenses at school. Besides, I will correspond with him frequently so that he can seek advice whenever he needs. Your prompt attention to my inquiry would be highly appreciated. Yours sincerely, Li Ming
  4、备忘录/报告:
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Directions: You are the president of a company. Write a memo to Percy Shelley, the vice-president on the employee's training on computer, telling him the need to train the employees, detailed information, and ask him to write a plan. Date:January 20, 2007 To:Percy Shelley, Vice President From:Li Ming, President Subject:Computer Training of the Staff As we discussed earlier this week, I agree with you that our firm is faced up with problem of the high rate of computer illiteracy of the staff. We need to make up a plan for training our employees in the new field. I would like you to design our own in-house computer-training program. We had better classify the employees and put them through the program in turn. Write up a brief proposal, describing what you think the program should cover. Assume the class runs four hours a week for ten weeks. Also, assume people have no prior computer knowledge or any formal course work in computer science.
  5、摘要:
  1)不超过原文三分之一,可少不可多;
  2)不要评论、不要照抄;
  3)改写每段首尾句。 二、告示类应用文: (一)写作格式:
  1、标题
  2、日期:标题右下方
  3、正文:1 - 3 段,3 - 6 句,0 - 1 从句,现在/将来时
  4、署名:个人或单位 (二)分类:通告/通知、启事、其他 经典范文:征稿启事 Directions: Your journal is planning to publish an issue. Write a contributions wanted which covers the following information:
  1) the purpose of the issue,
  2) time and methods of delivery,
  3) other details. You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name a
 

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