21世纪研究生英语(综合教程
  2)练习题答案 世纪研究生英语(综合教程 ) 世纪研究生英语 Unit One Text A Putting in a Good Word for Guilt
Ⅲ. Key to the exercises
  1. Reading comprehension (
  1) They think guilt is a bad thing for one’s psychology, and if you want to live with true liberation, you should get rid of the sense of guilt and try to believe everything and everybody is OK, no matter what you have done. (
  2) Under this kind of conception, people try to ignore the sense of guilt without finding out its real meaning in life. And it’s somewhat like self deceiving to say everything is ok because in deeper conscience, people will still feel uneasy if sense of guilt is not dealt with properly. (
  3) Some people can go through their lives without a moment of guilt, while the other group of people may feel guilty just for being alive. (
  4) A sense of guilt, as well as a sense of duty, can urge us to do the right thing when we may not feel like doing it. In that way, a sense of guilt is the great civilizer of our basic conscience and the maintainer of our behavior. (
  5) You can either change the opinion of a perfect image so that you’ll feel less guilty when failing to achieve something, or change the behavior in a way that is more in accord with your right conscience.
  2. Vocabulary (
  1) slaying (
  2) obsessively (
  3) ingrained (
  4) hustles (
  5) inflicted (
  6) commandment/stampede (
  7) infidelities (
  8) qualms (
  9) catatonic
  3. Paraphrase (
  1) But then it came to my mind that people have given up guilt for too long a time. During that period of time of about ten years or more, those welcome psychologists solved people’s mental problems by writing books instead of giving clinical treatment. And they are trying to advocate the concept that nobody should feel guilty for anything. (
  2) In the past, it was commonly thought that to love himself, everyone should first give up his guilt. For the most part of the past ten years, people deliberately ignored the sense of guilt without understanding its meaning and significance. (
  3) What’s more, we would never be one of those who give up their guilt while becoming more and more deteriorated in excessive admiration of themselves. (
  4) There are people who are tortured by unreasonable guilt. Of course we are not willing to be one of them or guide our children to be one of them. (
  5) In such a changeable world, our sense of duty is very likely to change our feeling. Now an old concept may conflict with a new one on what we should do. There is a great difference between our belief and the education we got, and that difference results in the sense of guilt. (
  6) If guilt represents the contradiction of our standards of behavior, it is a good thing full of strength and humanness. (
  7) In some aspect, the so called bad feeling reflects the best nature of human being. Because we
don’t want to feel guilty, we will not do bad things. (
  8) In that aspect, guilt can make us civilized and force us by conscience to be good people instead of putting ourselves in the first place urgently.
  4. Cloze (
  2) responsibility(
  3) reason(
  4) triggered(
  5) anxiety(
  6) committed(
  7) criticism(
  8) empathy(
  9) develop(
  10) violates(
  11) value(
  12) intended(
  13) fulfill(
  14) generally(
  15) failing(
  16) intended(
  17) biochemical (
  18) judged(
  19) since(
  20) nature
  5. Translation A. Translate the following paragraph into Chinese. 究其最深层最彻底的含义, 内疚感是我们心中一个渴望被捕获的罪犯。 做错了事就产生这种 可怕的、 发自内心的感觉。 这正如麦克白夫人满脑子想的那个别人看不到的血点一样……而 且我们还不能四处张望。 没有内疚就等于没有良知。 感觉不到内疚的人给他人造成痛苦后心情照样不错, 结果他们就 心安理得地接着给别人制造痛苦。我们什么不要都可以,唯独不能不要良知。 弗洛伊德曾说过:“上帝在良知方面处理不当,有些粗心,大多数人生来良知就不算多,要 么就少的不值一提。” 这里说明一点,我并不是建议每个人报名参加寻找内疚之旅。然而,我们必须对以下两种观 点加以区分: 一种认为我们所有人都应该为诸如贫困或种族主义感到内疚; 另一种则断言受 压迫者是“命里注定”。 B. Translate the following sentences into English. (
  1) People appealed to the government to put in a good word for the real hero after the truth came out. (
  2) On the coming of the New Year, it occurred to Sam that he should put aside his work for a while and call his parents. (
  3) In a time of change, young people often put self interest in the first place and tune out social commitment. (
  4) The government has realized that serious social problems may arise from wealth polarization, and measures have been taken to shorten the distance. (
  5) As the cost of being famous, stars are particularly vulnerable to criticism, because people always have higher expectations of them.
Unit Two Text A In the Beginning: God and Science
Ⅲ. Key to the exercises
  1. Reading comprehension (
  1) “Immaterial” has two senses: (a) Of no importance or relevance, inconsequential or irrelevant; (b) Having no material body or form. It seems that people have taken the conception that religion or spiritual activity is of no importance in human’s life. (
  2) The Steady State theory that the universe just exists infinitively without generation and destruction. (
  3) Because they seem to get some confirmation from the science of the creation of world described in Bible. (
  4) Because it is one of the basic scientific principle that every effect has a cause, but the creation of the universe, as the starting point of everything, has no cause, which contradicts with the
principle. (
  5) Of course it is not the final conclusion about the creation of world. But both scientific and religious fields should take some effort to explore with proper awe the unknown area that is suggested by it.
  2. Vocabulary (
  2) serenity (
  3) ignites (
  4) receding(
  5) subversive(
  6) convergence (
  7) provisional(
  8) defies (
  9) concur (
  10) becoming
  3. Paraphrase (
  1) It’s hard and even intolerable to imagine the infinitive universe, like the endless time, but this idea can at least make people feel calm and peaceful. (
  2) However, in recent decades, the Steady State model of universe has been substituted in scientific field by a more difficult idea that the universe is full of forceful actions. (
  3) The Big Bang theory makes some astronomers very uneasy, but at the same time, creates a little excitement in religious field for it seems to confirm their belief in creation. (
  4) Science educed the Big Bang theory from the hard work of assumption and testification and even unexpected but pleasant incidents, which share little interest with ideology. (
  5) Many theologians also agree that the similar points of religion and science on the issue of creation is accidental without deep significance. (
  6) Some scientists refuse to consider the issue of creation with the attitude of dealing with the fact. (
  7) Yet, actually everyone, including scientists and common religious persons, is possessed by the confusing issues of creation and even what happened before it. (
  8) People who are engaged in the hi tech field need something from spirit and ethics to conduct their work. (
  9) The Big Bang theory of course is not the perfect final theory of creation that human can develop, but what it shows to us is a vast unknown area that requires effort and appropriate respect from both religion and science.
  4. Cloze (
  2) deeply(
  3) movements(
  4) longing(
  5) endeavor(
  6) present(
  7) religious(
  8) suffice(
  9) varying(
  10) experience(
  11) primitive(
  12) evokes(
  13) stage(
  14) poorly(
  15) creates(
  16) depend(
  17) handed(
  18) disposed(
  19) degree(
  20) basis
  5. Translation A. Translate the following paragraph into Chinese. 硅芯片时代的不可知论可被除了造物之外的许多疑惑所动摇。 几乎具有同样神秘色彩的问题 是,在几十亿年前,是什么条件产生了第一个能够复制自身的分子。这一步使得遍布地球的 所有生命形式的发展成为可能。为什么恰在那时发生呢? 对于科学和神学在大爆炸宇宙学上表面的趋同, 宗教界表现出来的热情是可以理解的。 自启 蒙运动以来, 《圣经》所述的创世故事或者其它“事件”,如人之堕落和耶稣基督的奇迹,屡 屡遭遇科学的贬抑;它们仅仅被当作神话、迷信而已。现在信徒们不由得要相信科学已经费 力地证实了至少一个圣经“神话”:创世说。 B. Translate the following sentences into English. (
  1) Since my grandma knows nothing about electrical appliance, she always stays clear of any of them with fear. (
  2) Although they have been sieged for almost a week, the soldiers swear never to yield the ground to the enemy.
(
  3) He found with embarrassment that his new boss turned out to be his primary school classmate, on whom he used to play trick. (
  4) Everybody should know how to choose when their social responsibility clashes with their personal interest. (
  5) Tourists from all over the world are really taken by the beauty and intelligence shown in this palace.
Unit Three Text A Privacy and Property on the Net
Ⅲ. Key to the exercises
  1. Reading comprehension (
  1) The writer intends to show there exists hypocrisy in government’s confidentiality protections. (
  2) The author implies to satirize that copyright fails to fulfill its function that it was intended to perform, that is, to protect performers, either celebrities or unknown performers, equally. Instead, it states a distinction between them. (
  3) Citizens’ privacy is violated by government surveillance (refer to para.
  7). (
  4) Scientists can utilize data mining. Although internet based research like data mining has its drawbacks such as lack of reliability, impossibility of impartiality, the writer still holds the view that“internet research could benefit science, as well as society.” (
  5) Government should keep pace with the societal development and timely update its policies on privacy and property based on appropriate research.
  2. Vocabulary (
  1) confidential (
  2) facilitate (
  3) bizarre (
  4) innovation (
  5) surveillance (
  6)incidentally (
  7) administered (
  8) deregulation
  3. Paraphrase (
  1) Although privacy and property are firmly established in the history of human development, they vary as the social criteria change. (
  2) They two are based on experience and can be scientifically true. However, they may be proved wrong in some domains like social aspects. (
  3) Court officials who have made a solemn promise could explore the doubtful cases then specify those really guilty few and report to punish them according to laws. (
  4) Information technology can not provide convincing answers to such questions thus ending up being doubted by public, following nuclear power and genetic engineering. (
  5) Internet based investigations might succeed, but they are usually less reliable than traditional randomly sampled polls.
  4. Cloze (
  1) sophisticated(
  2) protect(
  3) named(
  4) employed(
  5) one(
  6) decode(
  7) only(
  8) public(
  9) possessed(
  10) periodically(
  11) forge(
  12) Another(
  13) limit(
  14) privileges(
  15) accountable(
  16) confidential(
  17) access(
  18) difficult(
  19) mixture(
  20) symbols
  5. Translation A. Translate the following paragraph into Chinese. 这样一个多层机密系统的最佳构思是什么呢?是否会出现意外的后果?公众是否能接受? 如果不能很好地回答这些问题, 信息技术将会像核能源和基因工程一样被笼罩在大众的疑云 之中。 现在无处不在的电话销售已经让人们变得十分抵触通过电话进行的科学调查了。 网络
调查倒是大有前途,但是显然缺乏传统的随机抽样调查的可信度。另一个问题是,政府以安 全为目的进行数据收集和整合, 但是对其真实结果的研究在政府的安全机构内部是不可能公 正的,因为要想获得科学的公正性,研究就必须公开进行。 B. Translate the following sentences into English. (
  1) The news rendered us extremely excited that our contestant had won the championship in the contest. (
  2) After every Spring Festival graduates travel around the country in the pursuit of job. (
  3) How can you tell he has murdered his neighbor in the absence of any specific proof? (
  4) Under the threat of terrorists’ attacks government has to sift through heaps of mails every day. (
  5) The conference committes’ members are discussing whether the topic should fall under this session’s theme.
Unit Four Text A The New Whiz Kids (I)
Ⅲ. Key to the exercises
  1. Reading comprehension (
  1) A whiz kid, also called a child prodigy, usually refers to a person who is unusually intelligent, clever or successful, especially at an early age. Whiz kid is often used to refer to the intelligent, promising but inexperienced young officials in Kennedy’s cabinet, for example, Robert McNamara and Harold Brown. (
  2) Because young Asian American students are superachievers in their eyes: they are setting the educational pace for the rest of America, cutting a dazzling figure at the country’s finest schools, and they are exceptionally excellent on the math section of SAT. A higher percentage of these young people complete high school and finish college than white American students. (
  3) There are some reasons: first, “they work
 

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