好好学英语,天天向上
Unit 1 总论
Day 1 典型英语文章的写作脉络和答题步骤 典型英语文章的 写作脉络和答题步骤及技巧 总的来说,英语文章结构比较严谨,脉络清楚,所以我们在读任何文章的时候,脑 子里面一定要有一根线,先掌握了典型文章的展开方法,再加上一些引子等,就成了所有四 级阅读文章的结构。我们先以 2000 年 6 月的文章为例进行讲解体会。 请在 2 分钟以内读完这篇文章: 20
  00.6 Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. Why are uniforms so popular in the United States? Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian(百姓的)clothes. People have become conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears a uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity(身份)than to step out of uniform? Uniforms also have many practical benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible(可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes. Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least. Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. Though they are long lasting, often their initial expense is greater than the cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes. 同学们肯定说 2 分钟不可能读完, 但实际上我们只需要读下面这些划线的句子, 这 篇文章的脉络就出来了。 Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, ? Why are uniforms so popular in the United States? Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian(百姓的)clothes.
Uniforms also have many practical benefits. Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. 文章第一段给出了主题: uniforms, 并且提出了问题: Why are uniforms so popular in the United States?(为什么制服在美国如此受欢迎?) 在第二段作者讨论支持制服的主要原因,我们需要注意两个词:for, first。第三段 紧接着提到制服的一些实际的好处。 第四段作者的笔锋一转, 提到反对制服的主要原因, 两个关键词是: primary, against。 同样,在第五段给出的是一些反对制服实际的问题。 本文可以分为主题段(第一段)和展开段(第二、三和四、五段) 。其中二、三段 是一个小的展开,四、五段是第二个小的展开。读到这里,同学们实际上应该知道,这篇文 章主要讲的是制服的优点(第二、三段)和缺点(第四、五段) 。那么做本文的第五题就很 容易了:
  5. The best title for this passage would be . A) Uniforms and Society B) The Importance of Wearing a Uniform C) Practical Benefits of Wearing a Uniform D) Advantages and Disadvantages of Uniforms 答案显而易见是 D)。而且我们可以有这样的判断:第二、四段应该是老师出题的 重点,因为它们讲的是主要的方面;而三、五段可以一带而过,因为讨论的是一些次要的内 容。同时,我们应该了解每篇文章不是每一句话都要仔细读的。实际上,每篇文章都有四分 之一左右的内容不需要读。如果我们觉得有一句话不读就不放心的话,那么可以读,但是对 那些次要的内容不能花过多的时间,基本上扫一眼知道不重要就行了。 请读本文的前四题,并且找到它们在文中对应的地方(先不要做题) :
  1. It is surprising that Americans who worship variety and individuality . A) still judge a man by his clothes B) hold the uniform in such high regard C) enjoy having a professional identity D) will respect an elevator operator as much as a general in uniform
  2. People are accustomed to thinking that a man in uniform . A) suggests quality work B) discards his social identity C) appears to be more practical D) looks superior to a person in civilian clothes
  3. The chief function of a uniform is to . A) provide practical benefits to the wearer B) make the wearer catch the public eye C) inspire the wearer’s confidence in himself D) provide the wearer with a professional identity
  4. According to the passage, people wearing uniforms . A) are usually helpful B) have little or no individual freedom C) tend to lose their individuality
D) enjoy greater popularity 可以看出,第一题出自第一段,中间两题出自第二段,第四题出自第四段。 【文章大意】 美国人特别为自己的多样性和个性而自豪, 但是他们却非常喜爱和尊重制服, 无论 是电梯操作员的制服还是五星上将的制服。为什么制服在美国那么受欢迎呢? 最重要的原因之一是, 在很多人看来穿制服比穿便装看上去更加职业化, 人们习惯 于期待从穿制服的人身上得到更好的服务。 如果电视机修理工穿着制服去修电视, 就比穿便 装更能给人带来信任感, 穿制服的汽车修理工给人的感觉也是这样。 另外, 对于护士、 警察、 理发师和侍者来说, 要想让别人不知道自己的职业身份, 有什么方法比脱掉制服更加容易呢? 制服还有一些很实际的好处, 比如说你不需要花钱买别的衣服了, 也不需要花钱去 清洗它,而且它是可减税的。而且制服相对普通衣服来说更舒服,更耐穿。 反对制服的观点主要是它们缺少变化,穿制服使人失去个性。尽管有很多种制服, 但是一旦穿上了某一种制服,就一辈子穿下去了,没有任何变化,一直到退休为止。当人们 看上去相像时,他们的思想、语言、行动也会变得相像,至少在工作中是这样的。 制服也会带来一些很实际的问题。 尽管它们比较耐穿, 但是起初花费在制服上的钱 可能会比普通衣服要高。还有一些制服,保养起来是非常花钱的,它们需要专业化的干洗, 而不能在家里做普通的清洗。 总结起来,英语文章如下图所示:
图1 英文行文方式:倒金字塔形,即最重要的内容一般放在最前面加以介绍,越往后重 要性越低。 在做阅读理解题时有两个标准:速度和准确度。四级阅读的速度要求是 70wpm ( words per minute),准确度要求是 70%以上。一般同学们有两种阅读顺序: ① 读文章→读题目和选项→回到文章中找答案→检查; ② 读题目和选项→读文章→做题→检查。 分析一下,第一种方法可能同学们读得比较细,准确度的要求容易达到,但绝大部 分人是无法在 9 分钟之内读完文章并做题的; 而第二种方法容易达到速度的要求, 准确度的 要求又很难达到。 综合这两种方法,可以归纳出既照顾速度又考虑准确度的阅读步骤:
  1)Skim→
  2)Read the questions (without the choices) →
  3)Scan and locate→
  4) Review。
  1)为浏览全文。拿到一篇文章我们先花 2 分钟左右的时间读第一段的头三句话和 后面每一段的第一句话, 目的是掌握全文主题和每段大意。 因为绝大部分英语文章的行文方 式呈倒金字塔形(见上述) ,通常最重要的内容放在前面。
  2)为读题干,但不要读选项,花
  1.5 分钟左右。读时应把题干的关键词注上下划 线,这样带着问题读文章,定位就精确多了。
  3)为查读和定位。花
  5~7 分钟找到题目所在的地方,并且做题。
  4)为检查。注意在检查时如果没有确凿把握,不要随意改动自己的第一选择,因 为研究证明第一选择比第二选择的正确可能性大。 大家再看下面这篇文章: For an increasing number of students at American universities, old is suddenly in. The reason is obvious: the graying of America means jobs. Coupled with the aging of the baby-boom
(生育高峰) generation, a longer life span means that the nation’ elderly population is bound to s expand significantly over the next 50 years. By 2050, 25 percent of all Americans will be older than 65, up from 14 percent in 19
  95. The change poses profound questions for government and society, of course. But it also creates career opportunities in medicine and health professions, and in law and business as well. “In addition to the doctors, we’re going to need more sociologists, biologists, urban planners and specialized lawyers,” says Professor Edward Schneider of the University of Southern California’s (USC) School of Gerontology(老年学). Lawyers can specialize in “elder law,” which covers everything from trusts and estates to nursing-home abuse and age discrimination (歧视) Businessmen see huge opportunities in the . elder market because the baby boomers, 74 million strong, are likely to be the wealthiest group of retirees in human history. “Any student who combines an expert knowledge in gerontology with, say, an MBA or law degree will have a license to print money,” one professor says. Margarite Santos is a 21-year-old senior at USC. She began college as a biology major but found she was “really bored with bacteria.” So she took a class in gerontology and discovered that she liked it. She says, “I did volunteer work in retirement homes and it was very satisfying.” 实际上我们只要读下面划线的部分就知道本文的中心和每段的主题了。 For an increasing number of students at American universities, old is suddenly in. The reason is obvious: the graying of America means jobs. Coupled with the aging of the baby-boom (生育高峰)generation, a longer life span means that the nation's elderly population is bound to expand significantly over the next 50 years. By 2050, 25 percent of all Americans will be older than 65, up from 14 percent in 19
  95. The change poses profound questions for government and society, of course. But it also creates career opportunities in medicine and health professions, and in law and business as well. “In addition to the doctors, we're going to need more sociologists, biologists, urban planners and specialized lawyers,” says Professor Edward Schneider of the University of Southern California’s (USC) School of Gerontology(老年学). Lawyers can specialize in “elder law,” which covers everything from trusts and estates to nursing-home abuse and age discrimination (歧视) Businessmen see huge opportunities in the . elder market because the baby boomers, 74 million strong, are likely to be the wealthiest group of retirees in human history. “Any student who combines an expert knowledge in gerontology with, say, an MBA or law degree will have a license to print money,” one professor says. Margarite Santos is a 21-year-old senior at USC. She began college as a biology major but found she was “really bored with bacteria.” So she took a class in gerontology and discovered that she liked it. She says, “I did volunteer work in retirement homes and it was very satisfying.” 我们知道文章的主题是“old is suddenly in. The graying of America means jobs” ,即 美国人的老年化给社会带来了多样的工作机会,也即老年学“gerontology”变得受欢迎。第 二段作者从律师和商人两方面加以论证,第三段用一个学生的例子进行进一步说明。 我们要想准确知道哪一个选项是正确选项, 就需要了解迷惑项的出题方式。 知道正 确答案为什么对和错误选项为什么错。 请先花五分钟时间做上面第二篇文章的五个问题:
  1. “? old is suddenly in” (Line 1, Para.
  1) most probably means “ ”. A) America has suddenly become a nation of old people B) gerontology has suddenly become popular
C) more elderly professors are found on American campuses D) American colleges have realized the need of enrolling older students
  2. With the aging of America, lawyers can benefit . A) from the adoption of the “elder law” B) from rendering special services to the elderly C) by enriching their professional knowledge D) by winning the trust of the elderly to promote their own interests
  3. Why can businessmen make money in the emerging elder market? A) Retirees are more generous in spending money. B)
 

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