[大家学习网 bbs.TopSage.com] whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range >01 The Language of Music from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, A painter hangs his or her finished picture on a wall, and everyone can from a child to a distinguished scientist. see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often performed. produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very long and as arduous a training to become a performer as a medical broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of one's entire life. an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the Throughout a country, children arrive at school at left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an arm -- two entirely different movements. adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The Singers and instrumentalists have to be able to get every note perfectly slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are an understanding of the workings of government, have usually been already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner's responsibility limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own school students know that they are not likely to find out in their difficulties: the hammers that hit the strings have to be classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. tone has to sound clear. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student schooling. conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and 上学与受教育 how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these 在美国,人们通常认为上学是为了受教育。 而现在却有人认为孩 sounds with fanatical but selfless authority. 子们上学打断了他们 受教育的过程。 这种观念中的上学与受教育 Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical 之间的区别非常重要。 knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy 与上学相比,教育更具 开放性,内容更广泛。 教育不受任何限 制。 它可以在任何场合下进行,在淋浴时,在工作 时,在厨房 performing works written in any century. 里或拖拉机上。 01 音乐的语言 也包括一切非正规教育。 传 授 画家将已完成的作品挂在墙上,每个人都可以观赏到。 作曲家写 它既包括在学校所受的正规教育, 知识的人可以是德高望重的老者,可以是收音机里进行政治辩论的 完了一部作品,得由 演奏者将其演奏出来,其他人才能得以欣赏。因为作曲家是如此完 人们,可以是小孩子, 全地依赖于职业歌手和职 业演奏者,所以职业歌手和职业演奏者 也可以是知名的科学家。 上学读书多少有点可预见性,而教育往 往能带来意外的发现。 与 陌生人的一次随意谈话可能会使人认识 肩上的担子可谓不轻。 一名学音乐的学生要想成为 一名演奏者,需要经受长期的、严格 到自己对其它宗教其实所知甚少。 的训练,就象一名医科的学生要成为一名医生一样。 绝 大多数的 人们从幼时起就 开始受教育。 因此,教育是一个内涵很丰富的 词,它自始至终伴随人的一生,早在人们上 学之前就开始了。 训练是技巧性的。 音乐家们控制肌肉的熟练程度,必须达到与运动员或巴蕾舞演 员 教育应成为人生命中不可缺少的一部分。然而,上学却是一个特定 相当的水平。 歌手们每天都练习吊嗓子,因为如果不能有效地控 的形 式化了的过程。 在不同场合下,它的基本形式大同小异。 在全国各地,孩子们几乎在同一 制肌肉的话,他们的声 带将不能满足演唱的要求。 弦乐器的演奏者练习的则是在左手的 时刻到达学校,坐在指定的座位上,由一位成年人传授知识,使用 大致相同的教材,做作业, 考试等等。 手指上下滑动的同时,用 右手前后拉动琴弓--两个截然不同的动作。歌手和乐器演奏者必须 他们所学的现实生活中的一些片断,如字母表或政府的运作,往往 使所有的音符完全相同协 调。 钢琴家们则不用操这份心,因为每 受到科目范 围的限制。 例如,高中生们知道,在课堂上他们没法弄清楚他们社区里政治问 个音符都已在那里等待着他们了。 给钢琴调音是调 音师的职责。 但调音师们也有他们的难处: 他 题的真情, 也不会了解到最新潮的电影制片人在做哪些尝试。 学校教育这一形式化的过程是有特定的 限制的。 们必须耐心地调理敲击琴弦的音锤,不能让 音锤发出的声音象是打击乐器,而且每个交叠的音都必须要清晰。 >03 The Definition of "Price" Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means 如何得到乐章清晰的纹理 by which products and services that are in limited supply are 是学生指挥们所面临的难题:他们必须学会了解音乐中的每一个音 rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a 及其发音之道。 他们还 complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought 必须致力于以热忱而又客观的权威去控制这些音符。除非是和音乐 and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad 方面的知识和悟性结合起 来,单纯的技巧没有任何用处。 of services, including labor, professional, transportation, and 艺术家之所以伟大在于他们对音乐语言驾轻就熟,以致于 可以满 public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the "system" of prices. The price of any particular product or 怀喜悦地演出写于任何时代的作品。 service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which >02 Schooling and Education It is commonly believed in the United States that school is where everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else. If one people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define amount of money paid today children interrupt their education to go to school. The "price", many would reply that price is an distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words, important. Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than that price is the money value of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of [大家学习网 bbs.TopSage.com] 1
[大家学习网 bbs.TopSage.com] money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller 了数百万年。 科学家不 should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the 断发现许多生物世界里可能有益于人类的关于电的有趣秘密。所有 amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time 生物细胞都会发出微小的 电脉冲。 and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be 当心脏跳动时,把它发出的脉冲记录下来就成了心电图,这可让医 made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that apply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery 生了解心脏的 工作状况。大脑也发出脑电波,这可在脑电图上记 terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer 录下来。 and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the 许多生物细胞发出的电流都是 极微小的,小到要用灵敏仪器才能 total "package" being exchanged for the asked-for amount of money 记录和测量。 但一些动物的某些肌肉细胞能转化成一个 个发电 in order that they may evaluate a given price. 机,以致完全失去肌肉细胞的功能。 "价格"的定义 价格决定资源的使用方式。 价格也是有限的产品与 这种细胞大量地连接在一起时产生的效果将是 非常令人吃惊的。 服务在买方中的配给 手段。 电鳗就是一种令人惊异的蓄电池。 它可以在水中发出相当于 800 美国的价格系统是复杂的网状系统,包括经济生活中一切产品买卖 伏特电 的价格,也包括 名目繁多的各种服务,诸如劳动力、专职人员、 压电流(家庭用户的电压只有 120 伏特)。 在电鳗的身体里,多 交通运输、公共事业等服务的价格。 至五分之四的细胞都专门用 来发电,而且发出的电流的强度大约 所有 这些价格的内在联系构成了价格系统。 任何一种个别产品 和它身体的长度成正比。 或服务的价格都与这个庞大而复 >05 The Beginning of Drama 杂的系统密切相关,而且或多或少地受到系统中其它成份的制约。 There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. 如果随机挑选一群人,问 问他们如何定义"价格",许多人会回答价格就是根据卖方提供的产 The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. 品或服务,买方向其付出 的钱数。 In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world 换句话说,价格就是市场交易中大家认同的产品或服务的货币量。 even the seasonal changes - as unpredictable, and they sought 该定义就其本 身来说自有其道理。 through various means to control these unknown and feared 但要获得对价格在任何一桩交易中的完整认识,就必须考虑到大量 powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the " 非货币"因素的影响。 买卖双方不但要清楚交易中的钱数,而且 desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the 要非常熟悉交易物的质量和 数量,交易的时间、地点,采用哪种形式付款,有怎样的缓付和优 mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art 惠,对交易物的质量保证、 交货条款、退赔权利等等。 and drama. 也就是说,为了能估算索价,买卖双方必须通晓构成交易物价 格 Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those 的通盘细节。 rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, >04 Electricity masks, and costumes were almost always used. Furthermore, The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric a suitable site had to be provided for performances and when the entire lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what community did not participate, a clear division was usually life would be like without them. When there is a power failure, people made between the "acting area" and the "auditorium." In grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets addition, there were performers, and, since considerable because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of silent refrigerators. rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or than two centuries ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect -- success in hunt this field for millions of years. Scientists are discovering more and or battle, the coming ra
 

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